The impact strength of cellulose diacetate (CDA) bonded with a modified cardanol (3-pentadecylphenoxy acetic acid: PAA) was greatly improved up to 9 kJ/m2 by adding a relatively small amount of modified silicones while suppressing a decrease in bending strength. In our recent research, this thermoplastic resin (PAA-bonded CDA) exhibited high rigidity, glass transition temperature, and water resistance. However, its impact strength was insufficient for use in durable products. Therefore, silicones modified with polyether, amino, and epoxy groups were investigated as possible ways to improve the impact strength. The results show that adding polyether-modified silicone (polyether silicone) with moderate polarity relative to PAA-bonded CDA resulted in shearing deformation greatly enhances its impact strength while maintaining other properties, including glass transition temperature (Tg), water resistance, and thermoplasticity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2014, 131, 40366.