• freshwater mussels;
  • beavers;
  • conservation;
  • decline


  • 1.
    Two western pearlshell (Margaritifera falcata) populations in western Washington were surveyed in 1995 and re-surveyed in 2006. Significant declines in mussel numbers had occurred in both streams during the past decade.
  • 2.
    In Bear Creek, overall density dropped from 56.0–6.9 mussels m−2, and in Battle Creek, overall density dropped from 80.7–13.4 mussels m−2 in 2006.
  • 3.
    Large numbers of empty shells were found in Bear Creek in 2006, indicating high levels of mortality. A disproportionate loss of large, old mussels resulted in a forward shift in modal age class, from 51–60 years to 31–40 years.
  • 4.
    In Battle Creek, survival appeared to be higher, although significant numbers of shells were found in places. A lack of juvenile mussels indicated recruitment problems, possibly due to habitat degradation following colonization of the stream corridor by beavers and/or a lack of migratory host fish.
  • 5.
    Effective remedial actions for the Bear Creek and Battle Creek M. falcata populations are required within the next 5–10 years and 50 years, respectively, in order to ensure their long-term survival.

Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.