SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

LITERATURE CITED

  • Abel O. 1931. Die Stellung des Menschen im Rahmen de Wirbeltiere, Fischer, Jena.
  • Anderson S, Jones JK. 1984. Orders and families of recent mammals of the world. New York: Wiley.
  • Andersson L. 1990. The driving force: species concepts and ecology. Taxon 39: 375382.
  • Begun DR. 1992. Miocene fossil hominids and the chimp-human clade. Science 257: 19291933.
  • Begun DR, Kordos L. 1993. Revision of Dryopithecus brancoi SCHLOSSER, 1901 based on the fossil hominoid material from Rudabanya. J Hum Evol 25: 271285.
  • Benefit BR, McCrossin ML. 1995. Miocene hominoids and hominid origins. Annu Rev Anthropol 24: 237256.
  • Bloch JI, Fisher DC, Gingerich PD, Gunnel GF, Simons EL, Uhen MD. 1997. Cladistic analysis and anthropoid origins. Science 278: 21342136.
  • Boaz NT. 1988. Status of Australopithecus afarensis. Yearb Phys Anthropol 31: 85113.
  • Bock WJ. 1981. Functional-adaptive analysis in evolutionary classification. Am Zool 21: 520.
  • Bookstein FL. 1994. Can biometrical shape be a homologous structure? In: HallBK, editor. Homology: the hierarchical basis of comparative biology. New York: Academic Press. p 198229.
  • Branco W. 1898. Die menschenaähnilichen Zähne aus dem Bohnerz der Schwäbischen Alp., Jh. Ver. Vaterl. Naturkde, Württemberg, Teil I, 54: 1144.
  • Chaline J. 1999. A new view of hominid evolution. In: ReumerJWF, De VosJ, editors. Elephants have a snorkel! Papers in honor of Paul Sondaar. Deinsea 7: 6782.
  • Chamberlain AT, Wood BA. 1987. Early hominid phylogeny. J Hum Evol 16: 119133.
  • Claridge MF, Dawah HA, Wilson MR. 1997. Practical approaches to species concepts for living organisms. In: ClaridgeMF, DawahHA, WilsonMR, editors. Species. The units of diversity. London: Chapman and Hall. p 116.
  • Collard M, Wood B. 2000. How reliable are human phylogenetic hypotheses? Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97: 50035006.
  • Conroy GC, Pickford M, Senut B, Van Couvering J, Mein P. 1992. Otavapithecus namibiensis, first Miocene hominoid from southern Africa. Nature 356: 144148.
  • Courant F, Marchard D. 2000. Le supra-occipital des Cétés et des Rongeurs foissers. Une convergence morphologique induite par le pôle post-céphalique? C R Acad Sci Ser III Sci Vie 323: 203213.
  • Cracraft J. 1983. Species concepts and speciation analysis. Curr Ornithol 1: 159187.
  • Cuvier G. 1812. Recherches sur les Ossements fossiles de Quadrupeds. Paris.
  • Darwin C. 1859. On the origins of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. London: John Murray.
  • Darwin C. 1871. The descent of man and selection in relation to sex. London: John Murray.
  • Davis DD. 1964. The giant panda. A morphologic study of evolutionary mechanisms. Fieldiana Zoological Memoirs Chicago: Chicago Natural History Museum.
  • de Beer GR. 1937. The development of vertebrate skull. London: Oxford University Press.
  • de Bonis L, de Bouvrain G, Geraads DM, Koufos G, 1990. New hominoid skull material from the late Miocene of Macedonia in Northern Greece. Nature 345: 712714.
  • De Queiroz K. 1997. The Linnean hierarchy and the evolutionization of taxonomy, with emphasis on the problem of nomenclature. Aliso 15: 125144.
  • De Queiroz K, Gauthier J. 1990. Phylogeny as a central principle in taxonomy: phylogenetic definitions of taxon names. Syst Biol 39: 307322.
  • De Queiroz K, Gauthier J. 1992. Phylogenetic taxonomy. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 23: 449480.
  • De Queiroz K, Gauthier J. 1994. Toward a phylogenetic system of biological nomenclature. Trends Ecol Evol 9: 2731.
  • Eldredge N, Cracraft J. 1980. Phylogenetic patterns and evolutionary process: method and theory in comparative biology. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Eliott-Smith G. 1924. Essays on the evolution of man. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Eliott-Smith G. 1925. The fossil anthropoid ape from Taung. Nature 115: 236.
  • Foley R. 2001. In the shadow of the modern synthesis? Alternative perspectives on the last fifty years of paleoanthropology. Evol Anthropol 10: 514.
  • Forey PL, Humphries CJ, Kitching IL, Scotland RW, Siebert DJ, Williams DM. 1992. Cladistics: a practical course in systematics. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Franciscus RG. 1999. Neanderthal nasal structures and upper respiratory tract “specialization.” Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96: 18051809.
  • Garner KJ, Ryder OA. 1996. Mitochondrial DNA diversity in gorillas. Mol Phylogenet Evol 6: 3948.
  • Gaudry A. 1890. Le dryopithèque, Mem. Soc. Geol. France, Pal. Mem. 1: 111.
  • Gebo DL, MacLatchy L, Kityo R, Deino A, Kingston J, Pilbeam D. 1997. A hominoid genus from the early Miocene Uganda. Science 276: 401404.
  • Gingerich PD. 1973. Anatomy of the temporal bone in the Oligocene anthropoid Apidium and the origin of Anthropoidea. Folia Primatol 19: 329337.
  • Graur D, Hilde WA, Li WH. 1991. Is the guinea pig a rodent? Nature 351: 649652.
  • Gregory WK. 1910. The orders of mammals Bull Am Mus Nat Hist 27: 1524.
  • Gregory WK. 1916. Studies on the evolution of primates. Bull Am Mus Nat Hist 35: 239355.
  • Gregory WK. 1922. The origin and evolution of the human dentition. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.
  • Gregory WK. 1934. Man's place among the anthropoids. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Groves CP. 1993. Speciation in living hominoid primates. In: KimbelWH, MartinLB, editors. Species, species concepts, and primate evolution. New York and London: Plenum Press. p 109122.
  • Hall BK. 1994. Homology: the hierarchical basis of comparative biology. New York: Academic Press.
  • Hanken J, Hall BK. 1993. The skull. Vol. 1, Development; Vol. 2, Patterns of structural and systematic diversity; Vol. 3, Functional and evolutionary mechanisms, Chicago and London: Chicago University Press.
  • Hennig W. 1966. Phylogenetic systematics. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
  • Hill A and Ward S. 1998. Origin of the hominidae: the record of African large hominoid evolution between 14 my and 4 my. Yrbk Phys Anthropol 31: 4983.
  • Howells WW. 1973. Cranial variation in man: a study by multivariate analysis. Peabody Museum Papers 67: 1259.
  • Howells WW. 1989. Skull shapes and the map: craniometric analyses in the dispersion of modern Homo. Papers in the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University 79: 1189.
  • Hurzeler J. 1960. The significance of Oreopithecus in the genealogy of man. Triangle 4: 164174.
  • Huxley TH. 1895. On the origin of species. New York: Appleton and Co.
  • Ishida H, Pickford M. 1997. A new late Miocene hominoid from Kenya: Samburupithecus kiptalami gen. et sp. nov. C R Acad Sci Earth Planetary Sci 325: 823829.
  • Ishida H, Kunimatsu Y, Nakatsukasa M, Nakano Y. 1999. New hominoid genus from the Middle Miocene of Nachola, Kenya. Anthropol Sci 107: 189191.
  • Jolly CJ. 1993. Species, subspecies, and baboon systematics. In: KimbelWH, MartinLB, editors. Species, species concepts, and primate evolution. New York and London: Plenum Press. p 67108.
  • Kappelman J, Simons EL, Swishe CC. 1992. New age determinations for the Eocene-Oligocene boundary sediments in the Fayum depression, Northern Egypt. J Geol 100: 647688.
  • Keith A. 1915. The antiquity of man. London: William and Norgate.
  • Keith A. 1925. The fossil anthropoid ape from Taungs. Nature 115: 234235.
  • Keith A. 1934. The construction of man's family tree. London: Watts.
  • Keith A. 1940. Fifty years ago. Am J Phys Anthropol 26: 251267.
  • Kluge AG. 1983. Cladistics and the classification of the great apes. In: CiochonRL, CorrucciniRS, editors. New interpretations of ape and human ancestry. New York and London: Plenum Press. p 180220.
  • Kluge AG. 1989. A concern for evidence and a phylogenetic hypothesis of relationships among Epicoates (Boidae, Serpentes). Syst Zool 38: 725.
  • Kohler M, Moya Sola SJ. 1997. Ape-like or hominid-like? The positional behavior of Oreopithecus bambolii reconsidered. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94: 11747– 11750.
  • Lamarck JB. 1809. Zoological philosophy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Larson SG. 1998. Parallel evolution in the hominoid trunk and forelimb. Evol Anthropol 6: 8799.
  • Le Gros Clark WE. 1950a. Hominid characters of the australopithecine dentition. J R Anthropol Inst 80: 3754.
  • Le Gros Clark WE. 1950b. New paleontological evidence bearing on the evolution of hominoidea. Q J Geol Soc Lond 105: 224264.
  • Le Gros Clark WE. 1955. The os inominatum of the recent Pongidae with special reference to that of the Australopithecinae. Am J Phys Anthropol 13: 1927.
  • Leakey LSB. 1967. An early Miocene member of Hominidae. Nature 213: 155163.
  • Leakey LSB. 1968. Bone smashing by late Miocene Hominidae. Nature 218: 528– 530.
  • Leakey LSB, Tobias PV, Napier J. 1964. A new species of the genus Homo from Olduvai Gorge. Nature 202: 710.
  • Lewis OJ. 1969. The hominoid wrist joint. Am J Phys Anthropol 30: 251285.
  • Lherminer P, Solignac M. 2000. L'espèce: définitions d'auteurs. C R Acad Sci Ser III Sci Vie 323: 153165.
  • Lieberman DE. 1995. Testing hypotheses about recent human evolution from skulls: integrating morphology, function, development, and phylogeny. Curr Anthropol 36: 159196.
  • Lieberman DE. 1999. Homology and hominid phylogeny: problems and potential solutions. Evol Anthropol 7: 142151.
  • Lieberman DE, Pilbeam DR, Wood B. 1996. Homoplasy and early Homo: an analysis of the evolutionary relationships of H. habilis sensus stricto and H. rudolfensis. J Hum Evol 30: 97120.
  • Lockwood CA, Fleagle JG. 1999. The recognition and evaluation of homoplasy in primates and human evolution. Yearb Phys Anthropol 42: 189232.
  • Lombard RE, Hetherington TE. 1993. Structural basis of hearing and sound transmission. In: HankenJ, HallBK, editors. The skull: functional and evolutionary mechanisms. Vol. 3. Chicago and London: Chicago University Press. p 241302.
  • Lovejoy CO, Cohn MJ, White TD. 1999. Morphologic analysis of mammalian limbs: a developmental perspective. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96: 1324713252.
  • Lovejoy CO, Cohn MJ, White TD. 2000. The evolution of mammalian morphology: a developmental perspective. In: O'HigginsP, CohnMJ, editors. Development growth and evolution. London: Linnean Society. p 4155.
  • Luckett WP, Hartenberger JL. 1997. Monophyly or polyphyly of the order Rodentia: possible conflict between morphological and molecular interpretations. J Mamm Evol 1: 127147.
  • Mayr E. 1950. Taxonomic categories in fossil hominids. Cold Spring Harbor Symp Quant Biol 15: 109118.
  • Mayr E. 1963. Populations, species, and evolution. Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
  • Mayr E. 1982. The growth of evolutionary thought. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
  • McCollum MA. 1999. The robust australopithecine face: a morphogenetic perspective. Science 284: 301305.
  • McCollum MA. 2000. Subnasal morphological variation in fossil hominids: a reassessment based on new observations and recent developmental findings. Am J Phys Anthropol 112: 275283.
  • McHenry HM. 1996. Homoplasy, clades and hominid phylogeny. In: MeikleWE, HowellFC, JablonskiNG, editors. Contemporary issues in human evolution. San Francisco: California Academy of Science. p 7791.
  • McKenna M, Bell SK. 1997. Classification of mammals above the species level. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Milinkovitch MC, Orti G, Meyers A. 1993. Revised phylogeny of whales suggested by mitochondrial ribosomal DNA sequences. Nature 361: 346348.
  • Miller GS. 1915. The jaw of Piltdown man. Smithson Misc Collect 65: 131.
  • Milner R. 1999. Huxley's bulldog: The battles of E. Ray Lankester (1846–1929). Anat Rec (New Anat) 257: 9095.
  • Moya-Sola S, Kohler M. 1996. A Dryopithecus skeleton and the origins of great ape locomotion. Nature 379: 156159.
  • Naylor GJP, Brown WM. 1998. Amphioxus mitochondrial DNA, chordate phylogeny, and the limits of inference based on comparisons and sequences. Syst Biol 47: 6176.
  • Nielsen C. 1998. Morphologic approaches to phylogeny. Am Zool 38: 942952.
  • Nixon KC, Carpenter JM. 1996. On simultaneous analysis. Cladistics 12: 221241.
  • Oakely KP. 1952. Swanscombe Man. Proc Geol Assoc 63: 271300.
  • Oakley KP. 1954. Dating of the Australopithecinae of Africa. Am J Phys Anthropol 12: 923.
  • Oakley KP, Hoskins CR. 1950. New evidence of the antiquity of Piltdown Man. Nature 165: 379.
  • Olson T. 1985. Cranial morphology and systematics of the Hadar fossil hominids and A. africanus. In: DelsonE, editor. Ancestors: the hard evidence. New York: Alan R. Liss. p 102119.
  • Osborn HF. 1922. Men of the old stone age, their environment, life and art. 3rd ed. New York: Charles Scribner and Sons.
  • Packer D, Sarmiento EE. 1984. External and middle ear characteristics of primates, with reference to tarsier-anthropoid affinities. Am Mus Novit 2787: 123.
  • Phillipe H. 1997. Rodent monophyly: pitfalls of molecular phylogenetics. J Mol Evol 45: 712715.
  • Pilbeam DR. 1967. Man's earliest ancestors. Sci J 3: 4753.
  • Pilbeam DR. 1968. The earliest hominids. Nature 219: 13351338.
  • Pilbeam DR. 1969. Newly recognized mandible of Ramapithecus. Nature 222: 1093.
  • Pilbeam DR. 1970. Gigantopithecus and the origins of Hominidae. Nature 225: 516.
  • Pilbeam DR. 1972. The ascent of man. New York: Macmillan.
  • Pilbeam DR. 2000. Hominoid systematics: the soft evidence. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97: 1068410686.
  • Pilbeam DR, Rose MD, Barry JC, Shah I. 1990. New Sivapithecus humeri from Pakistan and the relationship of Sivapithecus and Pongo. Nature 348: 237239.
  • Pilgrim GE. 1910. Notices of mammalian genera and species from the Tertiaries of India. Rec Geol Surv India 40: 6371.
  • Rae T. 1999. The maxillary sinus in primate paleontology and systematics. In: KoppeT, NagaiH, AltK, editors. The paranasal sinuses of higher primates: development, function, and evolution. Berlin: Quintessenz. p 177189.
  • Robinson JT. 1954. The genera and species of the Australopithecinae. Am J Phys Anthropol 12: 181200.
  • Robinson JT. 1962. The origin and adaptive radiation of the australopithecines. In: KurthG, editor. Evolution and hominization. Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer Verlag. p 120140.
  • Robinson JT. 1965. Homo habilis and the australopithecines. Nature 205: 121124.
  • Romer A. 1974. Vertebrate paleontology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • Ruvollo M, Disotell TR, Allard MW, Brown WM, Honeycutt RL. 1991. Resolution of the African hominoid trichotomy by use of a mitochondrial gene sequence. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 88: 15701574.
  • Ruvollo M, Zehr S, Pan D, von Dornum M, Chang B, Lin J. 1993. Mitochondrial COII sequences and modern human origins. Mol Biol Evol 10: 11151135.
  • Ruvollo M, Pan D, Zehr S, Goldberg T, Disotell TR, von Dornum M. 1994. Gene trees and hominoid phylogeny. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91: 89008904.
  • Sarmiento EE. 1983. The significance of the heel process in anthropoids. Int J Primatol 4: 127152.
  • Sarmiento EE. 1985. Functional differences in the skeleton of wild and captive orangutans and their adaptive significance. PhD dissertation. New York University, New York.
  • Sarmiento EE. 1987. The phylogenetic position of Oreopithecus and its significance in the origins of the Hominoidea. Am Mus Novit 2881: 144.
  • Sarmiento EE. 1988. Anatomy of the hominoid wrist joints, its evolutionary and functional implications. Int J Primatol 9: 281345.
  • Sarmiento EE. 1994. Terrestrial traits in the hands and feet of gorillas. Am Mus Novit 3009: 156.
  • Sarmiento EE. 1995. Cautious climbing and folivory: a model of hominoid differentiation. Hum Evol 10: 289321.
  • Sarmiento EE. 1998. Committed bipeds generalized quadrupeds and the shift to open habitats: an evolutionary model of hominid divergence. Am Mus Novit 3250: 178.
  • Sarmiento EE. 2001. Letter to the Editor. Evol Anthropol 10:15.
  • Sarmiento EE, Butynski TM, Kalina J. 1996. Gorillas of Bwindi-impenetrable forest and the Virunga volcanoes: taxonomic implications of morphological and ecological differences. Am J Primatol 40: 121.
  • Sarmiento EE, Butynski TM. 1996. Present problems in gorilla taxonomy. Gorilla J 12: 57.
  • Sarmiento EE, Marcus LF. 2000. The os navicular of humans, great apes, OH 8, Hadar, and Oreopithecus: functions, phylogeny, and multivariate analyses. Am Mus Novit 3288: 138.
  • Sarmiento EE, Oates JF. 2000. The Cross River Gorillas: a distinct subspecies Gorilla gorilla diehli Matschie. Am Mus Novit 3305.
  • Schlosser M. 1911. Beträge zur Kenntnis der oligozanen Landsäugetiere aus dem Fayum, Ägypten, Beitr. Pal. Oesterreich-Ungarns und Orients 24: 51167.
  • Schlosser M, von Zittel KA. 1923. Grundzüge der Paläontologie. 4 Aufl. München and Berlin: Oldenbourg.
  • Schuh RT. 2000. Biological systematics: principles and applications. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.
  • Schultz AH. 1930. The skeleton of the trunks and limbs of higher primates. Hum Biol 2: 303438.
  • Schultz AH. 1936. Characters common to higher primates and characters specific to man. Q Rev Biol 11: 259283, 425–455.
  • Schultz AH. 1963. Age changes, sex differences, and variability as factors in the classification of primates. In: WashburnSL, editor. Classification and human evolution. Chicago: Aldine. p 85115.
  • Schultz AH. 1968. The recent hominoid primates. In: WashburnSL, JayPC, editors. Perspectives on human evolution. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. p 122195.
  • Schwalbe G. 1915. über den fossilen Affen Oreopithecus bambolii. Z Morphol Anthropol 19: 149254.
  • Seaman MIJ. 2000. Evolutionary genetics of gorillas. PhD thesis, Yale University.
  • Senut B, Pickford M, Gommery D, Kunimatsu Y. 2000. Un nouveau genre d'hominoide du Miocene inferieur d'Afrique orientale: Ugandapithecus major (Le Gros Clark and Leakey, 1950) C R Acad Sci Tierre Plantes 331: 227233.
  • Senut B, Pickford M, Gommery D, Mein P, Cheboi K, Coppens Y. 2001. First hominoid from the Miocene (Lukeino formation, Kenya) C R Acad Sci Earth Planetary Sci 322: 137144.
  • Simons EL. 1963. Some fallacies in the study of hominid phylogeny. Proc Int Congr Zool 4: 2570.
  • Simons EL. 1965. New fossil apes from Egypt and the initial differentiation of Hominoidea. Nature 205: 135139.
  • Simons EL. 1967. The earliest apes. Sci Am 217: 2835.
  • Simons EL. 1972. Primate evolution: an introduction to man's place in nature. New York: Macmillan.
  • Simons EL, Pilbeam DR. 1965. Preliminary revision of the Dryopithecinae (Pongidae, Anthropoidea). Folia Primatol 3: 81152.
  • Simpson GG. 1945. The principles of classification and a classification of mammals. Bull Am Mus Nat Hist 85: 1350.
  • Simpson GG. 1961. Principles of animal taxonomy. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Simpson GG. 1963. The meaning of taxonomic statements. In: WashburnSL, editor. Classification and human evolution. Chicago: Aldine. p 131.
  • Stewart CB, Disotell T. 1998. Primate evolution: in and out of Africa. Curr Biol 8: R582R588.
  • Straus WL. 1963. The classification of Oreopithecus. In: WashburnSL, editor. Classification and human evolution. Chicago: Aldine. p 146177.
  • Szalay FS. 1976. Systematics of the omoyidae (Tarsiifomes, Primates): taxonomy, phylogeny, and adaptations. Bull Am Mus Nat Hist 156: 157450.
  • Szalay FS. 1993. Species concepts: the tested, the untested, and the redundant. In: KimbelWH, MartinLB, editors. Species, species concepts, and primate evolution. New York and London: Plenum Press. p 2142.
  • Szalay FS, Bock WJ. 1991. Evolutionary theory and systematics: relationships between process and patterns. Z Zool Syst Evolutionsforsch 29: 139.
  • Szalay FS, Delson E. 1979. Evolutionary history of the primates. New York: Academic Press.
  • Tattersall I. 1992. Species concepts and species identification in human evolution. J Hum Evol 22: 341349.
  • Tattersall I. 1993. Speciation and morphological differentiation in the genus Lemur. In: KimbelWH, MartinLB, editors. Species, species concepts, and primate evolution. New York and London: Plenum Press. p 163176.
  • Tattersall I, Eldredge N. 1977. Fact, theory and fantasy in human paleontology. Am Sci 65: 204211.
  • Van Couvering JA, Harris JM. 1993. Late Eocene age of the Fayum mammal faunas. J Hum Evol 21: 241246.
  • Virchow R. 1895. Weiter Mittheilungen über den Pithecanthropus erectus Dub. Verh Dtsch Ges Anthropol Zeit Ethnol XXVII: 648656.
  • Von Koenigswald GHR. 1956. Gebissreste von Menschenaffen aus dem unterpliozoan Rheinhessens Kon. Ned Akad Wetensch Amst Ser B 59: 318384.
  • Von Koenigswald GHR. 1969. Miocene Cercopitehcoidea and Oreopithecoidea from the Miocene of East Africa. In: LeakyLSB, editor. Fossil Vertebrates of Africa. London: Academic Press. 1: 3951.
  • Vrba ES, Denton GW, Partridge TC, Buckle LH. 1995. Paleoclimate and evolution, with emphasis on human origins. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.
  • Walker AC. 1969. Fossil mammal locality on Mount Elgon, Eastern Uganda. Nature 223: 591596.
  • Walker AC, Rose MD. 1968. Some hominoid vertebra e from the Miocene of Uganda. Nature 217: 980981.
  • Walker AC, Teaford MF, Leakey RE. 1986. New information concerning the R114 Proconsul site, Rusinga Island, Kenya. In: ElseJG, LeePC, editors. Primate evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p 144149.
  • Ward S, Brown B, Hill A, Kelley J, Downs W. 1999. Equatorius: a new hominoid genus from the middle Miocene of Kenya. Science 285: 13821386.
  • Weidenreich F. 1943. The skull of Sinanthropus Pekinensis; A comparative study on a primitive Hominid skull. Palaeontologia Sinica 127: New series 10. p 485.
  • Weiner JS. 1955. The Piltdown forgery. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Weiner JS, Oakley KP, Le Gros Clark WE. 1953. The solution of the Piltdown problem. Bull Bri Mus Nat Hist Geol 2: 139146.
  • Wheeler QD, Platnick N. 2000. The phylogenetic species concept. In: WheelerQD, MeierR, editors. Species concepts and phylogenetic theory. New York: Columbia University Press. p 5569.
  • White TD, Suwa G, Asfaw B. 1994. Australopithecus ramidus, a new species of early hominid from Aramis, Ethiopia. Nature 371: 306312.
  • Wood B, Collard M. 1999. The human genus. Science 284: 6571.
  • Woodward A. 1917. Fourth note on the Piltdown gravel, with evidence of a second skull of Eoanthropus dawsoni. Q J Geol Soc Lond 73: 110.
  • Woodward A. 1925. The fossil anthropoid ape from Taungs. Nature 115: 235236.
  • Wood-Jones F. 1929. Man's place among the mammals. New York: Longman's Green and Co.