Histochemical and ultrastructural studies of cartilage resorption and acid phosphatase activity during antler growth in fallow deer (Dama dama)



Cartilage resorption in forming primary fallow deer antlers was studied by histochemistry and electron microscopy. A high activity of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), a histochemical marker of skeletal resorbing cells, was first detected in cells located in the mesenchymal tissue separating the columns of hypertrophic cartilage. No cartilage resorption was observed in this region. Intense TRAP staining occurred in large multinucleated cells (identified as inactive osteoclasts) as well as in smaller cells (regarded as mononuclear osteoclast progenitors). On the basis of these findings it was concluded that this was the region where osteoclasts differentiated from progenitor cells. Further proximally, the mineralized cartilage was eroded by active osteoclasts that were located in Howship's lacunae and exhibited an intense TRAP staining. Electron microscopy showed that the cells identified as inactive osteoclasts lacked a polarized organization. In contrast, the active osteoclasts in the zone of cartilage resorption exhibited a typical polarized organization: the nuclei congregated near the basolateral cell surface, and there was a zone of deep membrane infoldings (ruffled border) surrounded by a clear zone at the apical cell pole adjacent to the resorption surface of the mineralized cartilage. The multinucleated cartilage-resorbing cells of the forming antler thus exhibited the typical histochemical and morphological features of active mammalian osteoclasts. Low levels of TRAP activity were also observed in hypertrophic chondrocytes; however, the specificity and potential significance of this staining remain to be elucidated. Anat Rec 268:66–72, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.