• forensics;
  • craniofacial identification;
  • odontological identification;
  • superimposition;
  • skeleton;
  • skull;
  • teeth;
  • Romanov, Tsar Nicolay;
  • Romanova, Anastasia;
  • Russia


This article describes the identification of skeletal remains attributed to the family of Tsar Nicolay Romanov and other persons buried together at a site near present-day Ekaterinburg, Russia. Detailed descriptions are given regarding the objective methods of craniofacial and odontological identification that were used. Employing computer-assisted photographic superimposition techniques and statistical analysis of morphologic and other characteristics of the specimens, this study identifies with a high likelihood of certainty the remains of the Tsar, his wife, three of his four daughters, and four household assistants. Very strong evidence is presented that the Tsar's daughter Anastasia was killed in 1918. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of the methods and trustworthiness of the results, as well as the prospects of future application of the methods for the identification of skeletonized human remains. Anat Rec (New Anat) 265:15–32, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.