The Sambungmacan 3 Homo erectus calvaria: A comparative morphometric and morphological analysis

Authors

  • Eric Delson,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Anthropology, Lehman College/CUNY, New York
    2. Ph.D. Program in Anthropology, CUNY Graduate Center, New York
    3. Division of Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History, New York
    4. New York Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology, New York University, New York
    • Department of Vertebrate Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024
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  • Katerina Harvati,

    1. Department of Anthropology, Lehman College/CUNY, New York
    2. Ph.D. Program in Anthropology, CUNY Graduate Center, New York
    3. Division of Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History, New York
    4. New York Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology, New York University, New York
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  • David Reddy,

    1. New York Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology, New York University, New York
    2. American Museum of Natural History, New York
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  • Leslie F. Marcus,

    1. Division of Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History, New York
    2. New York Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology, New York University, New York
    3. Department of Biology, Queens College/CUNY, New York
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  • Kenneth Mowbray,

    1. Division of Anthropology, American Museum of Natural History, New York
    2. Department of Anthropology, Rutgers University, New Jersey
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  • G. J. Sawyer,

    1. Division of Anthropology, American Museum of Natural History, New York
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  • Teuku Jacob,

    1. Laboratory of Paleoanthropology, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
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  • Samuel Márquez

    1. Department of Anthropology, Lehman College/CUNY, New York
    2. Ph.D. Program in Anthropology, CUNY Graduate Center, New York
    3. New York Consortium in Evolutionary Primatology, New York University, New York
    4. Department of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York
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Abstract

The Sambungmacan (Sm) 3 calvaria, discovered on Java in 1977, was illegally removed from Indonesia in 1998 and appeared in New York City in early 1999 at the Maxilla & Mandible, Ltd. natural history shop. Here we undertake an analysis of its phylogenetic and systematic position using geometric morphometrics and comparative morphology. The coordinates of points in the sagittal plane from glabella to opisthion were resampled to yield “lines” of 50 semi-landmarks. Coordinates of glabella, bregma, lambda, inion, and opisthion were also collected and analyzed separately. Casts of Homo erectus fossils from Indonesia, China, and Kenya and of “archaic H. sapiens” from Kabwe and Petralona, as well as 10 modern human crania, were used as the primary comparative sample. The modern humans were well separated from the fossils in a graphical superimposition of Procrustes-aligned semi-landmarks as well as in principal component and canonical discriminant analyses. In all of these, Sm 3 falls intermediate between the fossil and modern groups. Morphological comparisons of Sm 3 with a selection of Homo erectus fossils revealed its greatest similarity to specimens from Ngandong and the Sm 1 calvaria. Compared to all other H. erectus, Sm 3 was distinctive in its more vertical supratoral plane, less anteriorly projecting glabella and less sharply angled occiput. In these features it was somewhat similar to modern humans. It is not yet possible to determine if this similarity implies an evolutionary relationship or (more likely) individual or local populational variation. Several features of Sm 3 (small size, gracile supraorbital torus and lack of angular torus, and position in principal component analysis) suggest that it was a female. The use of geometric morphometrics provides a means to statistically test the shapes of such fossils in a manner not easily duplicated by other methods. The intermediate position of Sm 3 between fossil and modern samples in several different subanalyses exemplifies the value of this approach. Anat Rec 262:380–397, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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