The seminiferous epithelium in mature vasectomized Macaca fascicularis was examined quantitatively to assess spermatogenesis. Monkeys were bilaterally vasectomized and controls were bilaterally sham operated. At postoperative periods of 10 and 18 months, groups of monkeys were castrated and their testes prepared for morphologic analysis. Diameters were measured in 100 cross sections of seminiferous tubules from each animal. Numbers of spermatogonia (Ad and Ap), preleptotene spermatocytes, pachytene spermatocytes, and step 7 spermatids, relative to Sertoli cell nucleoli, were counted in stage VII tubules. Tubule diameter and germ cell numbers per Sertoli cell nucleoli were not altered by vasectomy. Our study demonstrates quantitatively that spermatogenesis in the monkey is not inhibited up to 18 months following vasectomy.