Isoenzymes of rat ventral prostate (RVP) acid phosphatase were isolated and partially purified by ultracentrifugation, Sephadex G-100 column chromatography, and isoelectric focusing. Antisera were raised to the isoenzymes of prostatic acid phosphatase by immunization of New Zealand white rabbits. Rabbit antisera reacting specifically to homologous but not heterologous isoenzymes of acid phosphatase were then reacted with a variety of tissues using indirect immunofluorescence. The tissues included prostate, spleen, bone marrow, liver, kidney, salivary gland complex, small intestine, and adrenal glands. An antiserum against a RVP acid phosphatase isoenzyme with a pI of 4.5 (A-PAP) localized acid phosphatase only in the supranuclear region of rat ventral prostate epithelial cells, and did not react with acid phosphatase in any of the other organs tested. A-PAP did not localize acid phosphatase in the ventral prostate from rats 14 days after castration. A-PAP did localize acid phsophatase in the ventral prostate from castrated animals that were treated with testosterone. These results indicate the A-PAP localized an androgendependent isoenzyme of acid phosphatase in RVP epithelial cells that may be secretory in nature. This antiserum should prove to be an ideal marker for studies involving hormonal regulation of prostatic epithelial function in vivo and in vitro.