Functional differentiation of the notochord in rhesus monkey embryos at stages 11–12 (25–28 days of gestation) was analyzed by means of ultrastructural cytochemistry. The notochordal cells exhibited well developed Golgi complexes, rough endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, and numerous coated vesicles. Large irregular intercellular spaces were common, and some contained fibrils and particulate matter similar to that observed in the perinotochordal space immediately surrounding the notochord. With the glycogen-specific thiocarbohydrazide-silver proteinate technique, solitary particles as well as large aggregates of glycogen were present within the notochordal cells. The center of some aggregates was electron lucent and contained collapsed membranous structures. The results indicate that as early as stage 11 the nonhuman primate notochord exhibits ultrastructural features suggestive of secretory activity and cytological complexity.