Enamel rod architecture and ameloblast arrangement were examined in pig and monkey teeth using light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Enamel rods in the pig teeth were arranged in longitudinal straight rows in the initial enamel layer, in longitudinal wavy rows in the inner enamel layer, and in a staggered pattern in the outer enamel layer. Rod decussation was seen only in the inner layer. Cross-sectined enamel rods in the pig were arcade-shaped in the initial and inner layers, and mostly round in shape with circular boundaries in the outer layer. Arrangement of secretory ameloblasts at the level of the distal terminal web and Tomes' processes, and shape of Tomes' processes, corresponded to those of the enamel rod in the enamel layers. Distal terminal webs were well developed between straight rows of the ameloblasts forming the initial layer and between wavy rows of the ameloblasts forming the inner layer, and less developed within a row. The filament bundles in the distal terminal webs were also oriented along the rows. However, in the ameloblasts forming the outer layer, which lost their row pattern, distal terminal web filaments were distributed uniformly at the cell periphery. A similar arrangement of wavy rows of ameloblasts at the level of distal terminal web and Tomes' processes was also seen in monkey teeth.