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LITERATURE CITED

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  • Campbell B. 1935. The comparative myology of the hippopotamus, pig, and tapir. Ph.D. Dissertation, Johns Hopkins University.
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  • Campbell B. 1945. The hindfoot musculature of some basic ungulates. J Mammal 26: 421424.
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  • Cuvier G. 1850. Anatomie comparée. Recueil de planches de myologie dessinées par Georges Cuvier ou exécutées sous ses yeux par M. Laurillard. Paris: Imprimerie d′E. Duverger.
  • Dalzell BB. 1970. Descriptive and functional morphology of the extrinsic shoulder musculature in Artiodactyls. Masters Thesis, University of California, Berkeley.
  • Gatesy J, Hayshi C, Cronin MA, Arctander P. 1996. Evidence from milk casein genes that cetaceans are close relatives of hippopotamid artiodactyls. Mol Bio Evol 13: 954963.
  • Getty R. 1975. Ruminant Myology. In: GettyR, editor. Sisson and Grossman's; The anatomy of the domestic animals. 5th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company. p 791860.
  • Gratiolet L-P. 1867. Rechereches sur l'anatomie de l′hippopotame. Paris: Victor Masson et Fils.
  • Humphry GM. 1872. On the disposition of muscles in vertebrate animals. J Anat Physiol 6: 293376.
  • Irwin D, Arnason U. 1994. Cytochrome b gene of marine mammals: phylogeny and evolution. J Mammal Evol 2: 3755.
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  • Kajava Y. 1923. Die volare handmusckulatur der huftiere. Acta Soc Med Fennicae Duodecim 4: 1184.
  • Kneepkens A, Badoux D, MacDonald A. 1989. Descriptive and comparative myology of the forelimb of the babirusa (Babyrousa babyrussa L. 1758). Zentralbl Veterinarmediz 18: 349365.
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  • Miall L, Greenwood F. 1878. The anatomy of the Indian elephant. J Anat Physiol 12: 261287.
  • Milne Edwards MH. 1868–1874. Recherches pour servir à l'histoire naturelle des mammifères: comprenant des considérations sur la classification de ces animaux. Paris: G. Masson.
  • Nickel R, Schummer A, Seiferle E, Wilkens H, Wille K-H, Frewein J. 1986. The anatomy of the domestic animals. Vol. I. The locomotor system of the domestic animals. 1st ed. Berlin: Verlag Paul Parey.
  • Nikaido M, Rooney AP, Okada N. 1999. Phylogenetic relationships among cetartiodactyls based on insertions of short and long interspersed elements: hippopotamuses are the closest extant relatives of whales. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96: 1026110266.
  • Shimamura M, Yasue H, Ohshima K, Abe H, Kato H, Kishiro T, Goto M, Munechika I, Okada N. 1997. Molecular evidence from retroposons that whales form a clade within even-toed ungulates. Nature 388: 666670.
  • Simpson G. 1945. The principles of classification and a classification of the mammals. Bull Am Mus Nat Hist 85: 1350.
  • Sisson S. 1975a. Porcine myology. In: GettyR, editor. Sisson and Grossman's; The anatomy of the domestic animals. 5th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company. p 12561267.
  • Sisson S. 1975b. Equine Myology. In: GettyR, editor. Sisson and Grossman's; The anatomy of the domestic animals. 5th ed. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company. p 376453.
  • Smuts MM, Bezuidenhout AJ. 1987. Anatomy of the dromedary. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Uhen MD. 2007. Evolution of marine mammals: back to the sea after 300 million years. Anat Rec (this issue).
  • Ursing BM, Arnason U. 1998. Analyses of mitochondrial genomes strongly support a hippopotamus-whale clade. Proc R Soc Lond B 265: 22512255.
  • Waibl H, Gasse H, Hashimoto Y, Budras K-D, Constantinescu GM, Saber AS, Simoens P, Salazar I, Sotonyi P, Augsburger H, Bragulla H. 2005. Nomina anatomica veterinaria. 5th ed. Hannover: International Committee on Veterinary Gross Anatomical Nomenclature. World Association of Veterinary Anatomists.
  • Windle BCA, Parsons FG. 1901. On the muscles of the Ungulata. Part I. Muscles of the head, neck, and fore-limb. Proc Zool Soc Lond 2: 656704.
  • Windle BCA, Parsons FG. 1903. On the muscles of the Ungulata. Part II. Muscles of the hind-limb and trunk. Proc Zool Soc Lond 1: 261298.