Heparan Sulfates in the Lung: Structure, Diversity, and Role in Pulmonary Emphysema

Authors

  • Nicole C. Smits,

    1. Department of Biochemistry, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen Centre for Molecular Life Sciences, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    2. Department of Medicine, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, New Hampshire
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Nicholas W. Shworak,

    1. Department of Medicine, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, New Hampshire
    Search for more papers by this author
  • P.N. Richard Dekhuijzen,

    1. Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Toin H. van Kuppevelt

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Biochemistry, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen Centre for Molecular Life Sciences, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    • Department of Biochemistry, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen Centre for Molecular Life Sciences (NCMLS), P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Search for more papers by this author
    • Fax: (+31)243-540-339


Abstract

There is an emerging interest in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the lung, especially in the role it plays in development and disease. There is a rapid change from the classical view of the ECM as a supporting structure towards a view of the ECM as a regulatory entity with profound effects on proliferation, migration, and differentiation of pulmonary cells. In the ECM, a variety of molecules is present in a highly organized pattern. Next to the abundant fiber-forming molecules such as collagens and elastin, a large number of less abundant molecules are part of the ECM, including proteoglycans. In this review, we will focus on one class of proteoglycans, the heparan sulfate proteoglycans. We will particularly address the structure, biosynthesis, and function of their saccharide moiety, the heparan sulfates, including their role in development and (patho)physiology. Anat Rec, 293:955–967, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

Ancillary