SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

LITERATURE CITED

  • Arbour VM. 2008. Evolution, biomechanics, and function of the tail club of ankylosaurid dinosaurs (Ornithischia: Thyreophora). M.Sc. thesis, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
  • Arbour VM, Sissons RL, Burns ME. A redescription of the ankylosaurid dinosaur Dyoplosaurus acutosquameus parks, 1924 (Ornithischia: Ankylosaur) and a revision of the genus. J Vertebr Paleontol (In Press).
  • Ashby MF, Gibson LJ, Wegst U, Olive R. 1995. The mechanical properties of natural materials. I. Material property charts. Proc Math Phys Sci 450: 123140.
  • Bonser RHC. 2000. The Young's modulus of ostrich claw keratin. J Mater Sci Lett 19: 10391040.
  • Bonser RHC, Purslow PP. 1995. The Young's modulus of feather keratin. J Exp Biol 198: 10291033.
  • Carpenter K, Sanders F, McWhinney L, Wood L. 2005. Evidence for predator-prey relationships: Example for Allosaurus and Stegosaurus. In: CarpenterK, editor. The Carnivorous Dinosaur. Bloominton, IN: Indiana University Press. p 4971.
  • COMSOL, Inc. 2005. COMSOL Multiphysics. Los Angeles, California, USA.
  • Coombs WP, Jr. 1971. The Ankylosauria. Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University, New York, New York, USA.
  • Coombs WP, Jr., 1979. Osteology and myology of the hindlimb in the Ankylosauria (Reptilia, Ornithischia). J Paleontol 53: 666684.
  • Coombs WP, Jr., 1995. Ankylosaurian tail clubs of middle Campanian to early Maastrichtian age from western North America, with description of a tiny tail club from Alberta and discussion of tail orientation and tail club function. Can J Earth Sci 32: 902912.
  • Currey JD. 1988. The effect of porosity and mineral content on the Young's modulus of elasticity of compact bone. J Biomech 21: 131139.
  • Currey JD. 2002. Bones: structure and mechanics. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
  • Erickson GM, Catanese J, Keaveny TM. 2002. Evolution of the biomechanical material properties of the femur. Anat Rec 268: 115124.
  • Farke AA, Chapman RE, Andersen A. 2007. Structural properties of the frill of Triceratops. Royal Tyrrell Museum Ceratopsian Symposium, 22–23 September 2007; Short Papers, Abstracts, and Programs. Drumheller, Alberta: Royal Tyrrell Museum. p 4447.
  • Franck A, Cocquyt G, Simoens P, De Belie N. 2006. Biomechanical properties of bovine claw horn. Biosyst Eng 93: 459467.
  • Lambe LM. 1910. Note on the parietal crest of Centrosaurus apertus and a proposed new generic name for Stereocephalus tutus. Ott Nat 14: 149151.
  • Maidment S, Porro L. 2007. Homology and function of the ornithischian dinosaur palpebral. J Vertebr Paleontol 27: 111A.
  • Maleev EA. 1952. A new ankylosaur from the Upper Cretaceous of Asia. Dokl Akad Nauk SSSR 87: 273276 [In Russian].
  • Maleev EA. 1954. The armored dinosaurs of the Cretaceous Period in Mongolia (Family Syrmosauridae). Work Paleontol Inst Acad Sci USSR 48: 142170 [In Russian; translation by Robert Welch].
  • Manning P, Ali J, McDonald S, Mummery P, Sellers W. 2007. Biomechanics of dromaeosaurid claws: application of X-ray microtomography, nanoindentation and finite element analysis. J Vertebr Paleontol 27: 111A.
  • Materialise. 2008. Mimics Version 12. Leuven, Belgium.
  • Mazzetta GV, Cisilino AP, Blanco RE. 2004. Mandible stress distriubution during the bite in Carnotaurus sastrei Bonaparte, 1982 (Theropoda, Abelisauridae). Amehiniana 41: 605617.
  • McNeel North America. 2007. Rhino 4.0. Seattle, Washington, USA.
  • Moreno K, Carrano MT, Snyder R. 2007. Morphological changes in pedal phalanges through ornithopod dinosaur evolution: a biomechanical approach. J Morphol 268: 5063.
  • Organ CL. 2006. Biomechanics of ossified tendons in ornithopod dinosaurs. Paleobiology 32: 652665.
  • Peattie AM, Majidi C, Corder A, Jull RJ. 2007. Ancestrally high elastic modulus of gecko setal β-keratin. J R Soc Interface 4: 10711076.
  • Peterson J, Dechow PC. 2003. Material properties of the human cranial vault and zygoma. Anat Rec 274: 785797.
  • Porro L. 2007. Feeding and jaw mechanism in Heterodontosaurus tucki using finite element analysis. J Vertebr Paleontol 27: 131A.
  • Porro L. 2008. Accuracy in finite element modeling of extinct taxa: sensitivity analyses in Heterodontosaurus tucki. J Vertebr Paleontol 28: 128A.
  • Rayfield EJ. 2004. Cranial mechanics and feeding in Tyrannosaurus rex. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 271: 14511459.
  • Rayfield EJ. 2005. Aspects of comparative cranial mechanics in the theropod dinosaurs Coelophysis, Allosaurus, and Tyrannosaurus. Zool J Linn Soc 144: 309316.
  • Rayfield EJ. 2007. Finite element analysis and understanding the biomechanics and evolution of living and fossil organisms. Ann Rev Earth Planet Sci 35: 541576.
  • Rayfield EJ, Norman DB, Horner CC, Horner JR, Smith PM, Thomason JJ, Upchurch P. 2001. Cranial design and function in a large theropod dinosaur. Nature 409: 10331037.
  • Reilly DT, Burstein AH. 1975. The elastic and ultimate properties of compact bone tissue. J Biomech 8: 393405.
  • Seki Y, Kad B, Benson D, Meyers MA. 2006. The toucan beak: structure and mechanical response. Mater Sci Eng 26: 14121420.
  • Scheyer TM, Sander PM. 2004. Histology of ankylosaur osteoderms: implications for systematics and function. J Vertebr Paleontol 24: 874893.
  • Shychoski L. 2006. A geometric morphometric and finite element analysis investigating tyrannosauroid phylogeny and ontogeny emphasizing the biomechanical implications of scale. M.Sc. thesis, University of Bristol, Bristol, United Kingdom.
  • Shychoski L, Rayfield E, Sakamoto M. 2007. The biomechanics of scale: a phylogenetic and ontogenetic investigation of tyrannosaurid dinosaurs using geometric morphometrics and the finite element method. J Vertebr Paleontol 27: 146A.
  • Snively E, Cox A. 2008. Structural mechanics of pachycephalosaur crania permitted head-butting behavior. Palaeontol Electron 11( 1): 3A: 117.
  • Snively E, Henderson DM, Phillips DS. 2006. Fused and vaulted nasals of tyrannosarid dionsaurs: implications for cranial strength and feeding mechanics. Acta Paleontol Pol 51: 45454.
  • Snively E, Russell A. 2002. The tyrannosaurid metatarsus: bone strain and inferred ligament function. Senckenbergiana Lethaea 82: 3542.
  • Strait DS, Wang Q, Dechow PC, Ross CF, Richmond BG, Spencer MA, Patel BA. 2005. Modeling elastic properties in finite-element analysis: how much precision is needed to produce an accurate model? Anat Rec 283A: 275287.
  • Strand7 Pty Ltd. 2008. Strand7. Sydney, Australia.
  • Turner CH, Wang T, Burr DB. 2001. Shear strength and fatigue properties of human cortical bone determined from pure shear tests. Calcif Tissue Int 69: 373378.
  • Vickaryous MK, Maryanska T, Weishampel DB. 2004. Ankylosauria. In: WeishampelDB, DodsonP, OsmolskaH, editors. The Dinosauria, 2nd ed. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. p 363392.
  • Wirtz DE, Schiffers N, Pandorf T, Radermacher K, Weichert D, Forst R. 2000. Critical evaluation of known bone material properties to realize anisotropic FE-simulation of the proximal femur. J Biomech 33: 13251330.