Clinical studies have expanded the therapeutic olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) transplantation to different human Central Nervous System (CNS) diseases. In fact, the OEC transplantation in clinic is a mixture of olfactory bulb cells; they even have not demonstrated that they have such a subpopulation yet. However, as a source of OECs transplantation, the development and identification of human fetal OECs are still need more understanding, because some surgery try to restoration CNS injury with a more purity of OEC cultures generated by a number of different procedures. In this article, twelve human fetal olfactory bulb (OB) samples were obtained from six fetuses in 20 weeks of gestation, it was studied by immunofluorescence on histological sections and cultured cells with multiple antibodies under confocal microscopy. The P75NTR positive OB-OECs (olfactory ensheathing cell from the olfactory bulb) were present in both outer olfactory nerve layers and glomerular layer. The percentage of OB cells in culture, about 22.31 was P75NTR positive, 45.77 was S100β, and 31.92 was GFAP. P75NTR and GFAP were coexpressed with S100β, respectively; however, P75NTR was not coexpressed with GFAP in human fetal OECs. It is suggested that the localization and development of human OECs in OB are different to those in rodent, and the P75NTR immunohistological staining is still necessary to identify and characterize human fetal OECs in culture before transplantation. Anat Rec, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.