The objective of this study was to investigate altered expressions of nuclear matrix proteins (NMPs) of human osteosarcoma (OS) MG-63 cells during curcumin-induced apoptosis of human OS MG-63 cells. MG-63 cells were cultured with curcumin (7.5 mg/L) for 72 hr. Morphological alterations of cells were captured using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, and cell cycle distribution was estimated by flow cytometry. NMPs were selectively extracted and subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis. Western blots were performed to determine changes in the expression levels of specific NMPs. The results demonstrated that typical characteristics of apoptosis were observed. Cellular chromatin agglutinated, cell nuclei condensed, and apoptotic bodies were formed after treatment with curcumin. The 2-DE results displayed 27 NMPs, 21 of which were identified to have change in expression levels significantly during apoptosis. The altered expressions of three of these NMPs (nucleophosmin, prohibitin, and vimentin) were further confirmed by immunoblotting. These findings indicated that the apoptosis of MG-63 cells was accompanied by the expression alteration of NMPs. Our results might help to reveal the relationship between NMPs and the regulation of gene expression in the process of apoptosis, as well as provide the basic concepts for future studies on the mechanisms of apoptosis and the therapy for bone diseases. Anat Rec, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.