This special issue of The Anatomical Record (AR) is based on interest generated by a symposium at the 2008 annual meeting of the American Association of Anatomists (AAA) at Experimental Biology, entitled “An Evolutionary Perspective on Human Anatomy.” The development of this volume in turn provided impetus for a Biological Anthropology Mini-Meeting, organized by members of the AAA for the 2010 Experimental Biology meeting in Anaheim, California. The research presented in these pages reflects the themes of these symposia and provides a snapshot of the current state of primate functional anatomy and biomechanics research. The 17 articles in this special issue utilize new models and/or approaches to study long-standing questions about the evolution of our closest relatives, including soft-tissue dissection and microanatomical techniques, experimental approaches to morphology, kinematic and kinetic biomechanics, high-resolution computed tomography, and Finite Element Analysis (FEA). This volume continues a close historical association between the disciplines of anatomy and biological anthropology: anatomists benefit from an understanding of the evolutionary history of our modern form, and biological anthropologists rely on anatomical principles to make informed evolutionary inferences about our closest relatives. Anat Rec, 293:544–548, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.