SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

LITERATURE CITED

  • Aiello L, Dean C. 1990. Human evolutionary anatomy. New York: Academic Press. p 608.
  • Boyer EL. 1935. The musculature of the inferior extremity of the orang-utan Simia satyrus. Am J Anat 56: 193256.
  • Boyer EL. 1939. The cranio-mandibular musculature of the orang-utan, Simia satyrus. Am J Phys Anthropol 24: 417427.
  • Bolter D, Zihlman AL. 2003. Morphometric analysis of growth and development in wild-collected vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops), with implications for growth patterns across Old World monkeys, apes, and humans. J Zool Lond 260: 99110.
  • Cant JH. 1987. Effects of sexual dimorphism in body size on feeding postural behavior of Sumatran orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus). Am J Phys Anthropol 74: 143148.
  • Cant JH. 1992. Positional behavior and body size of arboreal primates: a theoretical framework for field studies and an illustration of its application. Am J Phys Anthropol 88: 273283.
  • Chapman HC. 1878. On the structure of the gorilla. Proc Zool Soc Lond 30: 385394.
  • Chapman HC. 1880. On the structure of the orang outang. Proc Zool Soc Lond 32: 160174.
  • Chevalier-Skolnikoff S, Galdikas BMF, Skolnikoff AZ. 1982. The adaptive significance of higher intelligence in wild orangutans: a preliminary report. J Hum Evol 11: 639652.
  • Cipolletta C, Spagnoletti N, Todd A, Robbins MM, Cohen H, Pacyna S. 2007. Termite feeding by Gorilla gorilla gorilla at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic. Int J Primatol 28: 457476.
  • Clarys JP, Martin AD, Marfell-Jones MJ, Janssens V, Caboor D, Drinkwater DT. 1999. Human body composition: a review of adult dissection data. Amer J Hum Anat 11: 167174.
  • Davis DD. 1960. The proper goal of comparative anatomy. In: Purchon RD, editor. Proceedings of the Centenary and Bicentenary Congress of biology Singapore. Singapore: University of Malaya Press. p 4450.
  • Davis DD. 1961. Origin of the mammalian feeding mechanism. Am Zool 1: 229234.
  • Galdikas B. 1988. Orangutan diet, range, and activity at Tanjung Putting, Central Borneo. Int J Primatol 9: 135.
  • Gebo DL. 1992. Plantigrady and foot adaptation in African apes: implications for hominid evolution. Am J Phys Anthropol 89: 2958.
  • Gibbs S, Collard M, Wood B. 2000. Soft tissue characteristics in higher primate phylogenetics. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97: 1113011132.
  • Gibbs S, Collard M, Wood B. 2002. Soft tissue anatomy of the extant hominoids: a review and phylogenetic analysis. J Anat 200: 349.
  • Goldsmith ML. 1999. Ecological constraints on the foraging effort of western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic. Int J Primatol 20: 123.
  • Grand TI. 1964. The functional anatomy of the shoulder of the chimpanzee. PhD Thesis, University of California, Berkeley.
  • Grand TI. 1967. The functional anatomy of the ankle and foot of the slow loris (Nycticebus coucang). Am J Phys Anthropol 26: 207218.
  • Grand TI. 1968a. Functional anatomy of the upper limb. In: Biology of the howler monkey (Alouatta caraya). Basel, New York: Karger, Bibl Primat. p 104125.
  • Grand TI. 1968b. The functional anatomy of the lower limb of the howler monkey (Alouatta caraya). Am J Phys Anthropol 28: 163181.
  • Grand TI. 1972. A mechanical interpretation of terminal branch feeding. J Mammal 53: 198201.
  • Grand TI. 1977. Body weight: its relation to tissue composition, segment distribution, and motor function. I. Interspecific comparisons. Am J Phys Anthropol 47: 211239.
  • Grand TI. 1978. Adaptations of tissue and limb segments to facilitate moving and feeding in arboreal folivores. In: Montgomery GG, editor. The Ecology of arboreal folivores. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. p 231241.
  • Grand TI. 1984. Motion economy within the canopy: four strategies for mobility. In: Rodman PS, Cant JGH, editors. Adaptations for foraging in nonhuman primates. New York: Columbia University Press. p 5472.
  • Grand TI. 1997. How muscle mass is part of the fabric of behavioral ecology in East African bovids (Madoqua, Gazella, Damaliscus, Hippotragus). Anat Embryol 195: 375386.
  • Gregory WK. 1950. The Henry Cushier Raven memorial volume. The anatomy of the gorilla. New York: Columbia University Press. p 259.
  • Gresl TA, Baum ST, Kenmitz JW. 2000. Glucose regulation in captive Pongo pygmaeus abeli, P.p. pygmaeus, and P.p. abeli x P.p.pygmaeus. Zoo Biol 19: 193208.
  • Harrison ME, Morrogh-Bernard HC, Chivers DJ. 2010. Orang-utan energetics and the influence of fruit availability in the nonmasting peat-swamp forest of Sabangau, Indonesia, Borneo. Int J Primatol 31: 585607.
  • Isler K. 2005. 3D-Kinematics of vertical climbing in hominoids. Am J Phys Anthropol 126: 6681.
  • Isler K, Payne RC, Gunther MM, Thorpe SKS, Li Y, Savage R, Crompton RH. 2006. Inertial properties of hominoid limb segments. J Anat 209: 201218.
  • Isler K, Thorpe SKS. 2003. Gait parameters in vertical climbing of captive rehabilitant and wild Sumatran orang-utans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii). J Exp Biol 206: 40814096.
  • Jenkins FA, Fleagle JG. 1975. Knuckle-walking and the functional anatomy of wrists in living apes. In: Tuttle RH, editor. Functional morphology and evolution. The Hague: Mouton. p 213227.
  • Knott CD. 1998. Changes in orangutan caloric intake, energy balance, and ketones in response to fluctuating fruit availability. Int J Primatol 19: 10611079.
  • Knott CD. 2005. Energetic responses to food availability in the great apes: implications for hominin evolution. In: Brockman DK, van Schaik CP, editors. Seasonality in primates: studies of living and extinct human and non-human primates. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p 351378.
  • Lewis OJ. 1969. The hominoid wrist joint. Am J Phys Anthropol 30: 251268.
  • MacAlister A. 1873. The muscular anatomy of the gorilla. Proc Royal Irish Acad 11: 501506.
  • MacKinnon J. 1974. The behaviour and ecology of wild orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus). Anim Behav 22: 274.
  • McFarland RK, Zihlman AL. 1996. Body composition in male chimpanzees (P. paniscus and P. troglodytes): a preliminary report. Am J Phys Anthropol Suppl 22: 251.
  • McFarland RK, Zihlman AL. 1999. Analysis of body weight in chimpanzees and gorillas: a functional interpretation. Am J Primatol 499: 7980.
  • Miller RA. 1932. Evolution of the pectoral girdle and forelimb in primates. Am J Phys Anthropol 17: 156.
  • Morbeck ME, Zihlman AL. 1988. Body composition and limb proportions. In: Schwartz J, editor. Orangutan biology. New York: Oxford University Press. p 285297.
  • Nishihara T. 1995. Feeding ecology of western lowland gorillas in the Nouabale-Ndoki National Park. Primates 36: 151168.
  • Oishi M, Ogihara N, Endo H, Asari M. 2008. Muscle architecture of the upper limb in the orangutan. Primates 49: 204209.
  • Oishi M, Ogihara N, Endo H, Ichihara N, Asari M. 2009. Dimensions of forelimb muscles in orangutans and chimpanzees. J Anat 215: 373382.
  • Owen R. 1843. Notes of the dissection of a female orang-utan (Simia satyrus, Linn.). Proc Zool Soc Lond 11: 123124.
  • Owen R. 1859. On the gorilla (Troglodytes gorilla, Sav.). Proc Zool Soc Lond 27: 123.
  • Oxnard CE. 1967. The functional morphology of the primate shoulder as revealed by comparative anatomical, osteometric, and discriminant function techniques. Am J Phys Anthropol 26: 219240.
  • Payne RC, Crompton RH, Isler K, Savage R, Vereecke EE, Gunther MM, Thorpe SKS, D'Aout K. 2006a. Morphological analysis of the hindlimb in apes and humans. I. Muscle architecture. J Anat 208: 709724.
  • Payne RC, Crompton RH, Isler K, Savage R, Vereecke EE, Gunther MM, Thorpe SKS, D'Aout K. 2006b. Morphological analysis of the hindlimb in apes and humans. II. Moment arms. J Anat 208: 725742.
  • Pilbeam D. 1996. Genetic and morphological records of the Hominoidea and hominid origins: a synthesis. Mol Phylogen Evol 5: 155168.
  • Pilbeam D. 2000. Hominoid systematics: the soft evidence. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97: 1068410686.
  • Povinelli DJ, Cant JGH. 1995. Arboreal clambering and the evolution of self-conception. Quart Rev Biol 70: 393421.
  • Preuschoft H. 1961. Muskeln und gelenke der hinterextremitat des gorillas (Gorilla gorilla Savege et Wymann, 1847). Gegenbaurs Morphol Jahrb 101: 432540.
  • Preuschoft H. 1963. Muskelgewichte bei Gorilla, Orang-Utan, und Mensch. Anthrop Anz 26: 308317.
  • Raven HC. 1950. Part two. Regional anatomy of the gorilla. In: Gregory WK, editor. The Henry Cushier Raven memorial volume. The anatomy of the gorilla. New York: Columbia University Press. p 15188.
  • Remis MJ. 1994. Feeding ecology and positional behavior of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in the Central African Republic. PhD Dissertation, Yale University, New Haven, CT.
  • Remis MJ. 1995. The effects of body size and social context on the arboreal activities of western lowland gorillas in the Central African Republic. Am J Phys Primatol 97: 413433.
  • Remis MJ. 1997a. Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) as seasonal frugivores: use of variable resources. Am J Primatol 43: 87109.
  • Remis MJ. 1997b. Ranging and grouping patterns of a western lowland gorilla group at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic. Am J Primatol 43: 111133.
  • Remis MJ. 1999. Tree structure and sex differences in arboreality among western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic. Primates 40: 383396.
  • Rijksen HD. 1978. A field study on Sumatran orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus abellii, Lesson 1827): ecology, behaviour, and conservation. Wageningen: H Veenman and BV Zonen. p 421.
  • Roberts D. 1974. Structure and function of the primate scapula. In: Jenkins F, editor. Primate locomotion. New York: Academic Press. p 171200.
  • Rodman PS, Cant JGH. 1984. Introduction: from comparative morphology and socioecology to an organismal biology of primates. In: Rodman PS, Cant JGH, editors. Adaptations for foraging in nonhuman primates. New York: Columbia University Press. p 120.
  • Rogers ME, Abernethy K, Bermejo M, Cipolletta C, Doran D, McFarland K, Nishihara T, Remis M, Tutin CEG. 2004. Western gorilla diet: a synthesis from six sites. Am J Primatol 64: 173192.
  • Rose MD. 1988. Functional anatomy of the cheiridia. In: Schwartz J, editor. Orangutan biology. New York: Oxford University Press. p 299310.
  • Sarmiento EE. 1988. Anatomy of the hominoid wrist joint. Its evolutionary and functional implications. Int J Primatol 9: 281345.
  • Schultz AH. 1930. The skeleton of the trunk and limbs of higher primates. Hum Biol 2: 303438.
  • Schultz AH. 1933. Observations on the growth, classification, and evolutionary specializations of gibbons and siamangs. Hum Biol 5: 212255.
  • Schultz AH. 1937. Proportions, variability, and asymmetries of the long bones of the limbs and the clavicles in man and apes. Hum Biol 9: 281328.
  • Schultz AH. 1956. Postembryonic age changes. Primatologia 1: 887964.
  • Schultz AH. 1963a. Observations on the acetabulum of primates. Folia Primatol (Basel) 11: 181199.
  • Schultz AH. 1963b. Relations between the lengths of the main parts of the foot skeleton in primates. Folia Primatol (Basel) 1: 150171.
  • Sigmon BA. 1974. A functional analysis of pongid hip and thigh musculature. J Hum Evol 3: 161185.
  • Sigmon BA. 1975. Functions and evolution of hominid hip and thigh musculatures. In: Tuttle RH, editor. Primate functional morphology and evolution. The Hague: Mouton. p 235252.
  • Sonntag CF. 1924a. On the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the orang-utan. Proc Zool Soc Lond 24: 349451.
  • Sonntag CF. 1924b. The morphology and evolution of the apes and man. London 11: John Bole Sons and Danielsson, Ltd. p 364.
  • Stauffer RI, Walker A, Ryder OA, Lyons-Weller M, Blair Hedges S. 2001. Human and ape molecular clocks and constraints on paleontological hypotheses. J Hered 92: 469474.
  • Steiner P. 1954. Anatomical observations in a Gorilla gorilla. Am J Phys Anthropol 12: 145179.
  • Stern JT, Susman RL. 1981. Electomyography of the gluteal muscles in Hylobates, Pongo, and Pan: implications for the evolution of hominid bipedality. Am J Phys Anthropol 55: 153166.
  • Sugardjito J. 1982. Locomotor behaviour of the Sumatran orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus abelii) at Ketambe, Gunung Leuser National Park. Malay Nat J 35: 5764.
  • Sugardjito J, van Hooff JARAM. 1986. Age-sex class differences in the positional behaviour of the Sumatran orang-utan (Pongo pygmaeus abelii) in the Gunung Leuser National Park, Indonesia. Folia Primatol (Basel) 47: 1425.
  • Sullivan WE, Osgood CW. 1927. The musculature of the superior extremity of the orangutan, Simia satyrus. Anat Rec 35: 193239.
  • Taylor AB. 1997. Scapula form and biomechanics in gorillas. J Hum Evol 33: 529553.
  • Thorpe SKS, Crompton RH. 2006. Orangutan positional behavior and the nature of arboreal locomotion in the Hominoidea. Am J Phys Anthropol 131: 384401.
  • Thorpe SKS, Holder RL, Crompton RH. 2007. Origin of human bipedalism as an adaptation for locomotion on flexible branches. Science 316: 13281331.
  • Thorpe SKS, Holder RL, Crompton RH. 2009. Orangutans employ unique strategies to control branch flexibility. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106: 1264612651.
  • Tutin CEG, Fernandez M. 1993. Composition of the diet of chimpanzees and comparison with that of sympatric lowland gorillas in the Lope Reserve, Gabon. Am J Primatol 30: 195211.
  • Tutin CEG, Fernandez M, Rogers ME, Williamson EA, McGrew WC. 1991. Foraging profiles of sympatric lowland gorillas and chimpanzees in the Lope Reserve, Gabon. Philos. Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 334: 179186.
  • Tuttle RH. 1969. Quantitative and functional studies on the hands of the Anthropoidea. I. The Hominoidea. J Morphol 128: 309364.
  • Tuttle RH. 1970. Postural, propulsive, and prehensile capabilities in the cheiridia of chimpanzees and other great apes. In: Bourne GH, editor. The chimpanzee. Basel: Karger. Vol 2: p 167253.
  • Tuttle RH. 1972. Relative mass of cheiridial muscles in catarrhine primates. In: Tuttle RH, editor. The functional and evolutionary biology of primates. Chicago, New York: Aldine Atherton. p 262291.
  • Tuttle RH, Basmajian JV. 1974a. Electromyography of brachial muscles in Pan gorilla and hominoid evolution. Am J Phys Anthropol 41: 7190.
  • Tuttle RH, Basmajian JV. 1974b. Electromyography of forelimb musculature in Gorilla and problems related to knuckle-walking. In: Jenkins FA, editor. Primate locomotion. New York: Academic Press. p 293348.
  • Tuttle RH, Basmajian JV. 1978. Electromyography of pongid shoulder muscles. II. Deltoid, rhomboids, and “rotator cuff.” Am J Phys Anthropol 49: 4756.
  • Tuttle RH, Basmajian JV, Ishida H. 1975. Electromyography of the gluteus maximus muscle in gorilla and the evolution of hominid bipedalism. In: Tuttle RH, editor. Primate functional morphology and evolution. The Hague: Mouton. p 253269.
  • Tuttle RH, Cortright GW. 1988. Positional behavior, adaptive complexes, and evolution. In: Schwartz J, editor. Orangutan biology. New York: Oxford University Press. p 311330.
  • Tuttle RH, Velte J, Basmajian JV. 1983. Electromyography of brachial muscles in Pan troglodytes and Pongo pygmaeus. Am J Phys Anthropol 61: 7583.
  • Van Schaik C. 2004. Among orangutans. Red apes and the rise of human culture. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. p 244.
  • Washburn SL. 1951. Analysis of primate evolution with particular reference to the origin of man. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology 15, 67–78. (Reprinted 1999) In: Strum SC, Lindburg D, Hamburg D, editors. The new physical anthropology. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. p 717.
  • Washburn SL. 1963. Behavior and human evolution. In: Washburn SL, editor. Classification and human evolution. Viking Fund Pub. 37, Current Anthropology, New York: Wenner-Gren Foundation. p 190203.
  • Winkler L. 1989. Morphology and relationships of the orangutan fatty cheek pads. Am J Primatol 17: 305319.
  • Wright-Fitzgerald AS, Balceniuk MD, Burrows AM. 2010. Shouldering the burdens of locomotion and posture: glenohumeral joint structure in prosimians. Anat Rec 293: 680691.
  • Yamagiwa J, Maruhashi T, Yumoto T, Mwanza N. 1996. Dietary and ranging overlap in sympatric gorillas and chimpanzees in Kahuzi-Biega National Park, Zaire. In: McGrew WC, Marchant L, Nishida T, editors. Great ape societies: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p 8298.
  • Zihlman AL. 1984. Body build and tissue composition in Pan paniscus and Pan troglodytes, with comparisons to other hominoids. In: Susman RL, editor. The pygmy chimpanzee. New York: Plenum Publishing. p 179200.
  • Zihlman AL. 1997. The natural history of apes. In: Morbeck ME, Galloway A, Zihlman AZ, editors. The evolving female: life history features in females and males. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. p 86103.
  • Zihlman AL. 2004. Locomotor adaptations in great ape anatomy with implications for hominid origins. Folia primatol (Basel) 75( Suppl. 1): 353.
  • Zihlman AL. 2005. Quantitative anatomy and locomotor adaptations in great apes. Presentation at Understanding great apes in the genomic era. University of California, San Diego, August.
  • Zihlman AL, McFarland RK. 2000. Body mass in lowland gorillas: a quantitative analysis. Am J Phys Anthropol 113: 6178.
  • Zihlman AL, Mootnick AR, Underwood C. 2011. Anatomical contributions to hylobatid taxonomy and adaptation. Int J Primat. DOI 10.1007/s10764-011-9506-y.