Analysis of the Effect of Osteon Diameter on the Potential Relationship of Osteocyte Lacuna Density and Osteon Wall Thickness
Version of Record online: 1 AUG 2011
Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
The Anatomical Record
Volume 294, Issue 9, pages 1472–1485, September 2011
How to Cite
Skedros, J. G., Clark, G. C., Sorenson, S. M., Taylor, K. W. and Qiu, S. (2011), Analysis of the Effect of Osteon Diameter on the Potential Relationship of Osteocyte Lacuna Density and Osteon Wall Thickness. Anat Rec, 294: 1472–1485. doi: 10.1002/ar.21452
- Issue online: 17 AUG 2011
- Version of Record online: 1 AUG 2011
- Manuscript Accepted: 20 JUN 2011
- Manuscript Revised: 16 MAY 2011
- Manuscript Received: 1 FEB 2011
- NIH. Grant Number: DK43858
- Department of Veterans Affairs
- Orthopaedic Research and Education Foundation (OREF; medical research fund). Grant Number: 01-024
- Utah Bone and Joint Center, Salt Lake City, UT
- 2006. Osteocyte apoptosis is induced by weightlessness in mice and precedes osteoclast recruitment and bone loss. J Bone Miner Res 21: 605–615. , , , , , , .
- 1992. Projection effect errors in biomaterials and bone research. Cells Mater 2: 347–355. , .
- 2005. Chronic elevation of parathyroid hormone in mice reduces expression of sclerostin by osteocytes: a novel mechanism for hormonal control of osteoblastogenesis. Endocrinology 146: 4577–4583. , , , , , , , .
- 1983a. Bone stress in the horse forelimb during locomotion at different gaits: a comparison of two experimental methods. J Biomech 16: 565–576. , , , .
- 1983b. Mechanics of locomotion and jumping in the forelimb of the horse (Equus): in vivo stress developed in the radius and metacarpus. J Zool Lond 201: 67–82. , , .
- 2009. The relation of femoral osteon geometry to age, sex, height and weight. Bone 45: 77–83. , , , .
- 1999. Mechanotransduction in bone—role of the lacunocanalicular network. FASEB J 13: S101–S112. , .
- 2010. Decrease in the osteocyte lacunar density accompanied by hypermineralized lacunar occlusion reveals failure and delay of remodeling in aged human bone. Aging Cell 9: 1065–1075. , , , , , , , .
- 1982. Size and density of osteocyte lacunae in different regions of long bones. Calcif Tissue Int 34: 558–563. , , , , , , .
- 2006. Three-dimensional microcomputed tomography imaging of basic multicellular unit-related resorption spaces in human cortical bone. Anat Rec A: Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol 288: 806–816. , , , .
- 1964. Some effects of aging in human Haversian systems. J Anat Lond 98: 69–75. .
- 2005. Up-regulation of site-specific remodeling without accumulation of microcracking and loss of osteocytes. Bone 37: 16–24. , , , , , , , , , .
- 2010. Osteocyte apoptosis and control of bone resorption following ovariectomy in mice. Bone 46: 577–583. , , , , , , , .
- 1987. A polymethyl methacrylate method for large specimens of mineralized bone with implants. Stain Technol 62: 401–410. , , .
- 1960. In vivo osteocyte death. Am J Orthop 42-A: 138–143. .
- 1990. Skeletal structural adaptations to mechanical usage (SATMU). 2. Redefining Wolff's law: the remodeling problem. Anat Rec 226: 414–422. .
- 2001. From Wolff's law to the Utah paradigm: insights about bone physiology and its clinical applications. Anat Rec 262: 398–419. .
- 1992. Characterizing bone strain distribution in vivo using three triple rosette strain gauges. J Biomech 25: 1081–1087. , , .
- 2005. Death of osteocytes turns off the inhibition of osteoclasts and triggers local bone resorption. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 335: 1095–1101. , , , , .
- 1952. Some histophysiological problems peculiar to calcified tissues. J Bone Joint Surg Am 24-A-3: 701–728. .
- 2010. Bimodal distribution of osteocyte lacunar size in the human femoral cortex as revealed by micro-CT. Bone 47: 866–871. , , , , .
- 2007. Quantitative regional associations between remodeling, modeling, and osteocyte apoptosis and density in rabbit tibial midshafts. Bone 40: 627–637. , , , , , .
- 2010. Activation of bone remodeling after fatigue: differential response to linear microcracks and diffuse damage. Bone 47: 766–772. , , , , .
- 1966. The radial rate of osteon closure evaluated by means of in vivo tetracycline labeling in beagle dog rib. J Lab Clin Med 67: 447–454. , , , .
- 2008. Matrix mineralization as a trigger for osteocyte maturation. J Histochem Cytochem 56: 561–567. , , , , .
- 1954. Rate of individual Haversian system formation. Anat Rec 118: 315. , .
- 1966. Studies of Haversian systems in man and some animals. J Anat 100: 857–864. .
- 1998. In vivo tracer transport through the lacunocanalicular system of rat bone in an environment devoid of mechanical loading. Bone 22: 107–117. , , .
- 2008. Apoptotic bodies convey activity capable of initiating osteoclastogenesis and localized bone destruction. J Bone Miner Res 23: 915–927. , , .
- 1964. The lacunae and Haversian canals in tibial cortical bone from ischemic and non-ischemic limbs. A comparative microradiographic study. J Bone Joint Surg Am 46: 797–810. , .
- 1974. Experimental support for the trajectorial theory of bone structure. J Bone Joint Surg 56B: 160–166. .
- 1964. Appositional bone formation in canine bone: a quantitative microscopic study using tetracycline markers. J Anat 98: 665–677. .
- 1996. The structure of bone tissues and the cellular control of their deposition. Ital J Anat Embryol 101: 25–79. .
- 1992. A quantitative evaluation of osteoblast–osteocyte relationships on growing endosteal surface of rabbit tibiae. Bone 13: 363–368. , , , , .
- 2000a. Does osteocyte formation cause the nonlinear refilling of osteons. Bone 26: 71–78. .
- 2000b. Toward a unifying theory of bone remodeling. Bone 26: 1–6. .
- 1995. Evidence of strain-mode-related cortical adaptation in the diaphysis of the horse radius. Bone 17: 229–237. , , .
- 2003. Histomorphometric analysis of the effects of osteocyte density on osteonal morphology and remodeling. Bone 33: 753–759. , , .
- 1997. Trabecular bone volume and microdamage accumulation in the femoral heads of women with and without femoral neck fractures. Bone 21: 521–526. , , , .
- 1983. The physiologic and clinical significance of bone histomorphometric data. In: ReckerRR, editor. Bone histomorphometry: techniques and interpretation. Boca Raton: CRC Press, Inc. p 143–224. .
- 1993. Bone age, mineral density, and fatigue damage. Calcif Tissue Int 53 ( Suppl 1): S82–S85; discussion S85–S86. .
- 1994. Osteonal and hemi-osteonal remodeling: the spatial and temporal framework for signal traffic in adult human bone. J Cell Biochem 55: 273–286. .
- 2006. Secondary osteons and Haversian canal dimensions as behavioral indicators. Am J Phys Anthropol 131: 460–468. , , , .
- 1966. Normal histological, tetracycline and dynamic parameters in human, mineralized bone sections. Henry Ford Hosp Med J 14: 195–218. , , , , .
- 1990. A model of osteon closure in cortical bone. Calcif Tissue Int 47: 261–269. , .
- 2002. Osteocyte density in aging subjects is enhanced in bone adjacent to remodeling Haversian systems. Bone 30: 859–865. , , , , .
- 2001. Osteocyte lacunar occupancy in the femoral neck cortex: an association with cortical remodeling in hip fracture cases and controls. Calcif Tissue Int 69: 13–19. , , , , , .
- 2003. Histomorphometric assessment of Haversian canal and osteocyte lacunae in different-sized osteons in human rib. Anat Rec 272A: 520–525. , , , .
- 2006. Differences in osteocyte and lacunar density between Black and White American women. Bone 38: 130–135. , , , .
- 2010. Dependence of bone yield (volume of bone formed per unit of cement surface area) on resorption cavity size during osteonal remodeling in human rib: implications for osteoblast function and the pathogenesis of age-related bone loss. J Bone Miner Res 25: 423–430. , , , .
- 1991. A histomorphometric study of cortical bone activity during increased weight-bearing exercise. J Bone Miner Res 6: 741–749. , , , .
- 1995. Calvarial and limb bone cells in organ and monolayer culture do not show the same early response to dynamic mechanical strains. J Bone Miner Res 10: 1225–1232. , , , , .
- 2009. From streaming-potentials to shear stress: 25 years of bone cell mechanotransduction. J Orthop Res 27: 143–149. , .
- 2008. Mechanical stimulation of bone in vivo reduces osteocyte expression of Sost/sclerostin. J Biol Chem 283: 5866–5875. , , , , , , , , , , .
- 1982. Limb mechanics as a function of speed and gait: a study of functional strains in the radius and tibia of horse and dog. J Exp Biol 101: 187–211. , .
- 1982. Multidirectional in vivo strain analysis of the equine radius and tibia during dynamic loading with and without a cast. Am J Vet Res 43: 1541–1550. , , , , .
- 2008. Bone remodeling: multiple cellular interactions required for the coupling of bone formation and resorption. Semin Cell Dev Biol 19: 444–451. , .
- 2005. Osteocyte lacuna population densities in sheep, elk and horse calcanei. Cells Tissues Organs 181: 23–37. .
- 1993. Influence of mineral content and composition of gray levels in backscattered electron images of bone. J Biomed Mater Res 27: 57–64. , , , , .
- 1994a. Analysis of a tension/compression skeletal system: possible strain-specific differences in the hierarchical organization of bone. Anat Rec 239: 396–404. , , , .
- 2005a. Spatial distribution of osteocyte lacunae in equine radii and third metacarpals: considerations for cellular communication, microdamage detection and metabolism. Cells Tissues Organs 180: 215–236. , , .
- 2005b. Cement lines of secondary osteons in human bone are not mineral-deficient: new data in a historical perspective. Anat Rec A: Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol 286: 781–803. , , , .
- 1994b. Differences in osteonal micromorphology between tensile and compressive cortices of a bending skeletal system: indications of potential strain-specific differences in bone microstructure. Anat Rec 239: 405–413. , , .
- 1996. Evidence of structural and material adaptation to specific strain features in cortical bone. Anat Rec 246: 47–63. , , , .
- 2007a. Ontogenetic structural and material variations in ovine calcanei: a model for interpreting bone adaptation. Anat Rec 290: 284–300. , , , .
- 2007b. Are distributions of secondary osteon variants useful for interpreting load history in mammalian bones? Cells Tissues Organs 185: 285–307. , , .
- 1997. Biomechanical implications of mineral content and microstructural variations in cortical bone of horse, elk, and sheep calcanei. Anat Rec 249: 297–316. , , .
- 2009. Three-dimensional surface texture visualization of bone tissue through epifluorescence-based serial block face imaging. J Microsc 236: 52–59. , , , , , , , , .
- 1999. Loading conditions and cortical bone construction of an artiodactyl calcaneus. J Exp Biol 202 ( Pt 22): 3239–3254. , , , .
- 2007. Mechanically stimulated osteocytes regulate osteoblastic activity via gap junctions. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 292: C545–C552. , , , , , .
- 1993. Does weight-bearing exercise affect non-weight-bearing bone? J Bone Miner Res 8: 1053–1058. , , , .
- 1975. In vivo measurement of bone strain in the horse. Am J Vet Res 36: 1573–1579. , , .
- 2009. Mechanobiology of the skeleton. Sci Signal 2: pt3. , , , , , , , .
- 1999. Increased intracortical bone remodeling during lactation in beagle dogs. Biol Reprod 61: 1439–1444. , , , .
- 2004. Sclerostin is an osteocyte-expressed negative regulator of bone formation, but not a classical bmp antagonist. J Exp Med 199: 805–814. , , , , , , , , , .
- 2008. A unified theory for osteonal and hemi-osteonal remodeling. Bone 42: 250–259. , , , , .
- 2000. Decline in osteocyte lacunar density in human cortical bone is associated with accumulation of microcracks with age. Bone 26: 375–380. , , , , .
- 2008. Osteocyte morphology in fibula and calvaria—is there a role for mechanosensing? Bone 43: 452–458. , , , , , .
- 2001. A new view of mechanotransduction and strain amplification in cells with microvilli and cell processes. Biorheology 38: 119–142. , , .