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LITERATURE CITED

  • Asakawa A, Inui A, Fujimiya M, Sakamaki R, Shinfuku N, Ueta Y, Meguid MM, Kasuga M. 2005. Stomach regulates energy balance via acylated ghrelin and desacyl ghrelin. Gut 54: 1824.
  • Braun KP, Bulder MM, Chabrier S, Kirkham FJ, Uiterwaal CS, Tardieu M, Sébire G. 2009. The course and outcome of unilateral intracranial arteriopathy in 79 children with ischaemic stroke. Brain 132: 544557.
  • Grogan EL, Morris JJ, Norris PR, France DJ, Ozdas A, Stiles RA, Harris PA, Dawant BM, Speroff T. 2004. Reduced heart rate volatility: an early predictor of death in trauma patients. Ann Surg 240: 547556.
  • Hotchkiss RS, Schmieg RJ, Swanson PE, Freeman BD, Tinsley KW, Cobb JP, Karl IE, Buchman TG. 2000. Rapid onset of intestinal epithelial and lymphocyte apoptotic cell death in patients with trauma and shock. Crit Care Med 28: 32073217.
  • Imamura M, Mikami Y, Takahashi H, Yamauchi H. 1998. Effect of a specific synthetic inhibitor of neutrophil elastase (ONO-5046) on the course of acute hemorrhagic pancreatitis in dogs. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg 5: 422428.
  • Lee HM, Wang G, Englander EW, Kojima M, Greeley GJ. 2002. Ghrelin, a new gastrointestinal endocrine peptide that stimulates insulin secretion: enteric distribution, ontogeny, influence of endocrine, and dietary manipulations. Endocrinology 143: 185190.
  • Liu J, Li ZS, Wan XJ, Wang W. 2003. Expression and function of apoptosis-related genes Bcl-2/Bax and Fas/Fas L in the course of stress ulcer. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi 83: 504509.
  • Longa EZ, Weinstein PR, Carlson S, Cummins R. 1989. Reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion without craniectomy in rats. Stroke 20: 8491.
  • Mager U, Degenhardt T, Pulkkinen L, Kolehmainen M, Tolppanen AM, Lindström J, Eriksson JG, Carlberg C, Tuomilehto J, Uusitupa M; Finnish Diabetes Prevention Study Group. 2008. Variations in the ghrelin receptor gene associate with obesity and glucose metabolism in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance. PLoS One 3: 2941.
  • Masada T, Hua Y, Xi G, Ennis SR, Keep RF. 2001. Attenuation of ischemic brain edema and cerebrovascular injury after ischemic preconditioning in the rat. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 21: 2233.
  • Monteleone P, Serritella C, Martiadis V, Scognamiglio P, Maj M. 2008. Plasma obestatin, ghrelin, and ghrelin/obestatin ratio are increased in underweight patients with anorexia nervosa but not in symptomatic patients with bulimia nervosa. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93: 44184421.
  • Nakade Y, Tsuchida D, Fukuda H, Iwa M, Pappas TN, Takahashi T. 2005. Restraint stress delays solid gastric emptying via a central CRF and peripheral sympathetic neuron in rats. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 288: 427432.
  • Omerbegovic M, Duric A, Muratovic N, Mulalic L, Hamzanija E. 2003. Metabolic response to trauma and stress. Med Arh 57: 5760.
  • Sun Z, Wang X, Deng X, Lasson A, Wallén R, Hallberg E, Andersson R. 1998. The influence of intestinal ischemia and reperfusion on bidirectional intestinal barrier permeability, cellular membrane integrity, proteinase inhibitors, and cell death in rats. Shock 10: 203212.
  • Tebbe JJ, Mronga S, Tebbe CG, Ortmann E, Arnold R, Schafer MK. 2005. Ghrelin-induced stimulation of colonic propulsion is dependent on hypothalamic neuropeptide Y1- and corticotrophin-releasing factor 1 receptor activation. J Neuroendocrinol 17: 570576.
  • Toshinai K, Yamaguchi H, Sun Y, Smith RG, Yamanaka A, Sakurai T, Date Y, Mondal MS, Shimbara T, Kawagoe T, Murakami N, Miyazato M, Kangawa K, Nakazato M. 2006. Des-acyl ghrelin induces food intake by a mechanism independent of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor. Endocrinology 147: 23062314.
  • Tulassay Z, Herszenyi L. 2010. Gastric mucosal defense and cytoprotection. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 24: 99108.
  • Wang CX, Ding X, Shuaib A. 2008. Treatment with melagatran alone or in combination with thrombolytic therapy reduced ischemic brain injury. Exp Neurol 213: 171175.
  • Xu L, Depoortere I, Tomasetto C, Zandecki M, Tang M, Timmermans JP, Peeters TL. 2005. Evidence for the presence of motilin, ghrelin, and the motilin and ghrelin receptor in neurons of the myenteric plexus. Regul Pept 124: 119125.