Angiogenesis is crucial to successful implantation and decidualization, however, as an important angiogenic growth factor, the effect of Ang-2 in the process of implantation and decidualization is still unknown. This study is to investigate the differential expression of Ang-2 in mouse uterus during early pregnancy and its regulation by steroid hormones using in situ hybridization and RT-PCR. There is no detectable Ang-2 mRNA signal on days 1–5 of pregnancy by in situ hybridization. On days 6–8, Ang-2 mRNA is mainly expressed in the primary decidua of mesometrial side, and the expression gradually increases. By RT-PCR, a significantly higher level of Ang-2 expression is observed on day 8 of pregnancy, although Ang-2 expression can be found through days 1–8. Similarly, Ang-2 is highly expressed in decidualized cells under artificial decidualization. In the ovariectomized mouse uterus, Ang-2 expression gradually increases after estrogen injection and with peak levels at 12 hr, while progesterone injection can cause a decline in uterine Ang-2 mRNA level, which reaches a nadir at 12 hr. These results suggest that Ang-2 may play a key role in the process of mouse decidualization. Estrogen can induce the expression of Ang-2 while progesterone can inhibit its expression in the ovariectomized mouse uterus. Anat Rec, 2012. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.