Expression of the Tgfβ2 Gene During Chick Embryogenesis

Authors

  • Toshiyuki Yamagishi,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Anatomy, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, 1-4-3 Asahimachi, Abenoku, Osaka 545-8585, Japan
    • Department of Anatomy, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, 1-4-3 Asahimachi, Abenoku, Osaka 545-8585 Japan.
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    • Fax: +81-6-6646-3603.

  • Katsumi Ando,

    1. Department of Health Sciences, School of Health and Social Services, Saitama Prefectural University, 820 Sannomiya, Koshigayashi, Saitama 343-8540, Japan
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  • Hiroaki Nakamura,

    1. Department of Anatomy, Saitama Medical University, 38 Morohongo, Moroyama-machi, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495, Japan
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  • Yuji Nakajima

    1. Department of Anatomy, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka City University, 1-4-3 Asahimachi, Abenoku, Osaka 545-8585, Japan
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Abstract

We performed a comprehensive analysis of the expression of transforming growth factor (TGF) β2 during chick embryogenesis from stage 6 to 30 (Hamburger and Hamilton, J Morphol 1951;88:49–92) using in situ hybridization. During cardiogenesis, Tgfβ2 was expressed in the endothelial/mesenchymal cells of the valvulo-septal endocardial cushion tissue and in the epicardium until the end of embryogenesis. During the formation of major arteries, Tgfβ2 was localized in smooth muscle progenitors but not in the vascular endothelium. During limb development, Tgfβ2 was expressed in the mesenchymal cells in the presumptive limb regions at stage 16, and thereafter it was localized in the skeletal muscle progenitors. In addition, strong Tgfβ2 expression was seen in the mesenchymal cells in the pharyngeal arches. Tgfβ2 mRNA was also detected in other mesoderm-derived tissues, such as the developing bone and pleura. During ectoderm development, Tgfβ2 was expressed in the floor plate of the neural tube, lens, optic nerve, and otic vesicle. In addition, Tgfβ2 was expressed in the developing gut epithelium. Our results suggest that TGFβ2 plays an important role not only in epithelial-mesenchymal interactions but also in cell differentiation and migration and cell death during chick embryogenesis. We also found that chick and mouse Tgfβ2 RNA show very similar patterns of expression during embryogenesis. Chick embryos can serve as a useful model to increase our understanding in the roles of TGFβ2 in cell–cell interactions, cell differentiation, and proliferation during organogenesis. Anat Rec, 2012. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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