Recent biomechanical evidence has fuelled debate surrounding the winter habits of the hadrosaurian dinosaur Edmontosaurus (ca. 70 Ma). Using histological characteristics recorded in bone, we show that polar Edmontosaurus endured the long winter night. In contrast, the bone microstructure of temperate Edmontosaurus is inconsistent with a perennially harsh environment. Differences in the bone microstructure of polar and temperate Edmontosaurus consequently dispute the hypothesis that polar populations were migratory. The overwintering signal preserved in the microstructure of polar Edmontosaurus bone offers significant insight into the life history of dinosaurs within the Late Cretaceous Arctic. Anat Rec, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.