The process of tail regeneration has been described in a number of lizard species, with several studies focusing on the process in A. carolinensis (Jamison, 1964; Cox, 1968; Maderson and Licht, 1968; Simpson, 1968, 1970; Licht and Howe, 1969; Zika, 1969; Egar et al., 1970; Maderson and Salthe, 1971; Chlebowski et al., 1973; Turner and Singer, 1973; Bellairs and Bryant, 1985; Simpson and Duffy, 1994; Alibardi, 1995a, b, 2010; Alibardi and Toni, 2005). However, very little data exists regarding the fully regenerated tail, as most accounts focus on earlier stages of regeneration. With the sequencing of the A. carolinensis genome (Alfodi et al., 2011) and release of multiple RNA-Seq based transcriptomes (Eckalbar et al., 2012), there is a unique opportunity to integrate histological and anatomical findings with molecular studies in this lizard model species. Previous studies in A. carolinensis, Lygosomala terala, and Scincella lateralis have demonstrated that the ependyma plays a crucial role in inducing the regeneration of the cartilage (Kamrin and Singer, 1955; Cox, 1964, 1969; Simpson, 1970). The ependymal cells, which are the population of cells lining the central canal, grow directly from the spinal cord and no dedifferentiation has been reported for nervous tissues in A. carolinensis, Sphaerodactylus goniorhynchus, S. argus, and Lygosoma laterale tail regeneration (Hughes and New, 1959; Cox, 1969; Simpson, 1964, 1968). The A. carolinensis regenerated spinal cord and ependymal core have been reported to have two meningeal layers associated with it, an inner layer that is continuous with the original spinal cord and an outer layer that looks like loose mesenchyme. Others have reported the inner meningeal layer is continuous with the original meningeal layer of the spinal cord and grows out from the stump (Simpson, 1968; Egar et al., 1970); our findings are consistent with these data. We detected branching or duplication of the spinal cord and associated ependymal core in many regenerated tails, but consistent with previous reports, no ependymal cells or nerve axons were detected exiting the cartilage tube (Fig. 4). The functional implication of the duplicated ependymal cells, if any, is not clear. We observed peripheral nerve axons in the regenerated tail, but no new dorsal root ganglia, suggesting that these neuronal cell bodies are localized proximal to the autotomy break point. This would be consistent with previous reports that studied neural regeneration in S. goniorhynchus, S. argus, Lacerta muralis, and A. carolinensis indicating that all functional peripheral axons are derived from above the breakpoint and that there was a lack of regenerated dorsal root ganglia (Hughes and New, 1959; Pannese, 1962; Simpson, 1970; Egar et al., 1970; Bellairs and Bryant, 1985).