In the mammalian ovary both gonadotropins and local cytokines, acting through G-protein coupled receptors, govern the physiology of the ovary in part by regulating the cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate via adenylyl cyclases. The nine transmembrane adenylyl cyclases and a soluble adenylyl cyclase are regulated by a diversity of ligands. In this study we have examined the rat ovaries, prior to and subsequent to gonadotropin treatment, for the presence of different transmembrane adenylyl cyclases by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. Adenylyl cyclase I immunoreactivity was observed in the nuclei of oocytes in preantral and antral follicles along with some staining in granulosa cells. Equine chorionic gonadotropin injection increased adenylyl cyclase I staining in granulosa cells. Adenylyl cyclase I staining was also observed in luteal and endothelial cells. Adenylyl cyclase II was observed throughout the ovary, including granulosa cells and the ovarian surface epithelium. Adenylyl cyclase II staining was also found to increase in granulosa cells after equine chorionic gonadotropin injection. Adenylyl cyclase III was distributed primarily in theca and smooth muscle cells of arterioles, with faint staining in the oocytes of equine chorionic gonadotropin-injected ovaries. Adenylyl cyclase IV staining was present throughout the ovary, including the nuclei of oocytes. Adenylyl cyclase VIII staining in granulosa cells increased subsequent to equine chorionic gonadotropin injection and remained in luteal cells. Our study reveals the redundancy of adenylyl cyclases present in the rat ovary and, therefore, implies potential regulation of follicular and corpus luteum physiology by cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate generated through distinct adenylyl cyclases. Anat Rec, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.