SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

LITERATURE CITED

  • 1
    Ameghino F. 1891. Observaciones críticas sobre los mamíferos eocenos de la Patagonia austral. Revista Argentina de Historia Natural 1: 328382.
  • 2
    Andrews P, Lord JM, Evans EMN. 1979. Patterns of ecological diversity in fossil and modern mammalian faunas. Biol J Linn Soc 11: 177205.
  • 3
    Argot C. 2001. Functional-adaptive anatomy of the forelimb in the Didelphidae, and the paleobiology of the Paleocene marsupials Mayulestes ferox and Pucadelphys andinus. J Morphol 247: 5179.
  • 4
    Bargo MS, Toledo N, Vizcaíno SF. 2012. Paleobiology of the Santacrucian sloths and anteaters (Xenarthra, Pilosa). In: Vizcaíno SF, Kay RF, Bargo MS, editors. Early Miocene Paleobiology in Patagonia: high-latitude paleocommunities of the Santa Cruz Formation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p 216242.
  • 5
    Bargo MS, Vizcaíno SF, Archuby FM, Blanco RE. 2000. Limb bone proportions, strength and digging in some Lujanian (Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene) mylodontid ground sloths (Mammalia, Xenarthra). J Vertebr Paleontol 20: 601610.
  • 6
    Bargo MS, Vizcaíno SF, Kay RF. 2009. Predominance of orthal masticatory movements in the early Miocene Eucholaeops (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Tardigrada, Megalonychidae) and other megatherioid sloths. J Vertebr Paleontol 29: 870880.
  • 7
    Bock WJ, Von Wahlert G. 1965. Adaptation and the form-function complex. Evolution 19: 269299.
  • 8
    Brown JH, West GB. 2000. Scaling in biology. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • 9
    Bryant HN, Seymour KL. 1990. Observations and comments on the reliability of muscle reconstruction in fossil vertebrates. J Morphol 206: 109117.
  • 10
    Candela AM, Picasso MBJ. 2008. Functional anatomy of the limbs of Erethizontidae (Rodentia, Caviomorpha): indicators of locomotor behavior in Miocene porcupines. J Morphol 269: 552593.
  • 11
    Cartmill M. 1985. Climbing. In: Hildebrand M, Bramble DM, Liem KF, Wake DB, editors. Functional Vertebrate Morphology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p 7388.
  • 12
    Chiarello AG. 2008. Sloth ecology: an overview of field studies. In: Vizcaíno SF, Loughry WJ, editors. The biology of the Xenarthra. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. p 269280.
  • 13
    Croft DA. 2000. Archaeohyracidae (Mammalia: Notoungulata) from the Tinguiririca Fauna, central Chile, and the evolution and paleoecology of South American mammalian herbivores. PhD Dissertation, University of Chicago, USA.
  • 14
    Croft DA. 2001. Cenozoic environmental change in South America as indicated by mammalian body size distributions (cenograms). Divers Distrib 7: 271287.
  • 15
    De Iuliis G. 2003. Toward a morphofunctional understanding of the humerus of Megatheriinae: the identity and homology of some diaphyseal humeral features (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Megatheriidae). In: Fariña RA, Vizcaíno SF, Storch G, editors. Morphological Studies in Fossil and Extant Xenarthra. Senckenberg biol 83: 6978.
  • 16
    De Iuliis G, Pulera D. 2010. The dissection of vertebrates: a laboratory manual. 2nd ed. Amsterdam: Academic Press. p 332.
  • 17
    Delsuc F, Douzery EJP. 2008 Recent advances and future prospects in xenarthran molecular phylogenetics. In: Vizcaíno SF, Loughry WJ, editors. The biology of the xenarthra. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. p 1123.
  • 18
    Eisenberg JF. 1981. The mammalian radiations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • 19
    Elissamburu A, Vizcaíno SF. 2004. Limb proportions and adaptations in caviomorph rodents (Rodentia: Caviomorpha). J Zool 262: 145159.
  • 20
    Gaudin TJ. 2004. Phylogenetic relationships among sloths (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Tardigrada): the craniodental evidence. Zool J Linn Soc-Lond 140: 255305.
  • 21
    Gaudin TJ, McDonald HG. 2008. Morphology-based investigations of the phylogenetic relationships among extant and fossil xenarthrans. In: Vizcaíno SF, Loughry WJ, editors The Biology of the Xenarthra. Gainesville: University Press of Florida. p 2436.
  • 22
    Gray H. 1918. Anatomy of the Human Body. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger; Bartebly, 2000.
  • 23
    Hildebrand M. 1988. Analysis of vertebrate structure. 3rd ed. Wiley & Sons, Inc.: New York. p 701.
  • 24
    Humphry GM. 1869–1870. The myology of the limbs of the unau, the ai, the two-toed ant-eater and the pangolin. J Anat Physiol 4: 1778.
  • 25
    Jolly CJ. 1967. The evolution of the baboons. In: Vagtborg H, editor. The baboon in medical research, vol. 2. Austin: University of Texas Press. p 2350.
  • 26
    Jouffroy FK. 1971. Musculature des members. In: Grassé PP, editor. Traité de Zoologie, Tome XVI, 3rd Fasc. Paris: Masson. p 1476.
  • 27
    Jungers WL, Godfrey LR, Simons EL, Wunderlich RE, Richmond BG, Chatrath PS. 2002. Ecomorphology and behaviour of giant extinct lemurs from madagascar. In: Plavcan JM, Kay RF, Jungers WL, van Schaik CP, editors. Reconstructing behavior in the primate fossil record. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum publishersE.
  • 28
    Kay RF, Madden RH. 1997. Paleogeography and paleoecology. In: Kay RF, editor. Vertebrate Paleontology in the Neotropics. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. p 520550.
  • 29
    Kay RF, Vizcaíno SF, Bargo MS. 2012. A review of the paleoenvironment and paleoecology of the Miocene Santa Cruz Formation. In: Vizcaíno SF, Kay RF, Bargo MS, editors. Early Miocene Paleobiology in Patagonia: high-latitude paleocommunities of the Santa Cruz Formation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p 331365.
  • 30
    Lessertisseur J, Saban R. 1971. Squelette apendiculaire. In: Grassé PP, editor. Traitè de Zoologie, Tome XVI, 3rd Fasc. Masson: Paris, p 7091078.
  • 31
    Macalister A. 1869. On the myology of Bradypus tridactylus; with remarks on the general anatomy of the Edentata. Ann Mag Nat Hist 4: 5167.
  • 32
    Macalister A. 1875. Report on the anatomy of insectivorous edentates. Trans Royal Irish Acad 15: 491510.
  • 33
    Mariotti V, Facchini F, Belcastro MG. 2007. The study of entheses: proposal of a standardised scoring method for twenty-three entheses of the postcranial skeleton. Coll Antropol 31: 291313.
  • 34
    McDonald HG. 2003. Xenarthran skeletal anatomy: primitive or derived? (Mammalia, Xenarthra). Seck Biol 83: 517.
  • 35
    McDonald HG, De Iuliis G. 2008. Fossil history of sloths. In: Vizcaíno SF, Loughry WJ, editors. The Biology of the Xenarthra. Florida: University Press of Florida. p 2436.
  • 36
    McEvoy JS. 1982. Comparative myology of the pectoral and pelvic appendages of the North American porcupine (Erethizon dorsatum) and the prehensile-tailed porcupine (Coendou prehensilis). Bull Am Mus Nat Hist 173: 338421.
  • 37
    McKenna MC, Bell SK. 1997. Classification of mammals above the species level. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • 38
    Mendel FC. 1979. The wrist joint of two-toed sloths: its relevance to brachiating adaptations in the Hominoidea. J Morphol 162: 413424.
  • 39
    Mendel FC. 1981. The hand of two-toed sloths: its anatomy and potential uses relative to size of support. J Morphol 169: 119.
  • 40
    Mendel FC. 1985. Adaptations for suspensory behavior in the limbs of two-toed sloths. In: Montgomery GG, editor. The Ecology and Evolution of Armadillos, Sloths and Vermilinguas. Washington DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. p 151162.
  • 41
    Monteiro LR, Abe AS. 1999. Functional and historical determinants of shape in the scapula of xenarthran mammals: the evolution of a complex morphological structure. J Morphol 241: 251263.
  • 42
    Nowak RM. 1999. Walker's Mammals of the World. 6th Ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • 43
    Nyakatura JA, Petrovitch A, Fischer MS. 2010. Limb kinematics of the two-toed sloth (Choloepus didactylus, Xenarthra) and its implications for the evolution of the sloth locomotor apparatus. Zoology 113: 221234.
  • 44
    Oxnard C. 1963. Locomotor adaptations in the primate forelimb. Symp Zool Soc London 10: 165182.
  • 45
    Oxnard C. 1984. The Order of Man. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
  • 46
    Perkins ME, Fleagle JG, Heizler MT, Nash B, Bown TM, Tauber AA, Dozo MT. 2012. Tephrochronology of the Miocene Santa Cruz and Pinturas Formations, Argentina. In: Vizcaíno SF, Kay RF, Bargo MS, editors. Early Miocene Paleobiology in Patagonia: High-latitude paleocommunities of the Santa Cruz Formation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p 2340.
  • 47
    Plotnick RE, Baumiller TK. 2000. Invention by evolution: functional analysis in paleobiology. In: Erwin DH, Wing SL, editors. Deep Time. Paleobiology's perspective. Supplement to Paleobiology 26: 305321.
  • 48
    Polly PD. 2007. Limbs in mammalian evolution. In: Hall BK, editor. Fins into Limbs: Evolution, Development, and Transformation. University of Chicago Press: Chicago. p 245268.
  • 49
    Radinsky LB. 1987. The evolution of vertebrate design. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • 50
    Reed KE. 1998. Using large mammal communities to examine ecological and taxonomic structure and predict vegetation in extant and extinct assemblages. Paleobiology 24: 384408.
  • 51
    Sargis EJ. 2002. Functional morphology of the forelimbs of tupaiids (Mammalia, Scandentia) and its phylogenetic implications. J Morphol 253: 1042
  • 52
    Scott WB. 1903–1904. Mammalia of the Santa Cruz beds. I. Edentata. In: Scott WB, editor. Reports of the Princeton University Expeditions to Patagonia 1896-1899, Princeton: Princeton University Press. p 1364.
  • 53
    Smith AP, Ganzhorn JU. 1996. Convergence in community structure and dietary adaptation in Australian possums and gliders and Malagasy lemurs. Aust J Ecol 21: 3146.
  • 54
    Smith MJ, Savage RJG. 1955. Some locomotory adaptations in mammals. Zool J Linn Soc-Lond 42: 603622.
  • 55
    Szalay FS, Sargis EJ. 2001. Model-based analysis of postcranial osteology of marsupials from the Palaeocene of Itaboraí (Brazil) and the phylogenetics and biogeography of Metatheria. Geodiversitas 23: 139302.
  • 56
    Taylor BK. 1978. The anatomy of the forelimb in the anteater (Tamandua) and its functional implications. J Morphol 157: 347368.
  • 57
    Taylor BK. 1985. Functional anatomy of the forelimb in vermilinguas (anteaters). In: Montgomery GG, editor. The evolution and ecology of armadillos, sloths, and vermilinguas. Washington and London: Smithsonian Inst. Press. p 151171.
  • 58
    Taylor ME. 1974. The functional anatomy of the forelimb of some African Viverridae (Carnivora). J Morphol 143: 307336.
  • 59
    Toon S, Toon A. 2004. Koalas (Phascolarctidae). In: Grzimek Animals Life Encyclopedia, Detroit: Thomson Gale Group.
  • 60
    Toledo N, Bargo MS, Cassini GH, Vizcaíno SF. 2012. The forelimb of Early Miocene sloths (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Folivora): morphometrics and functional implications for substrate preferences. J Mamm Evol 19: 185198.
  • 61
    Toledo N, Cassini GH, Vizcaíno SF, Bargo MS. In press. Mass estimation in fossil sloths (Xenarthra, Folivora) from the Early Miocene Santa Cruz Formation of Patagonia, Argentina. Acta Palaeontol Pol. http://dx.doi.org/10.4202/app.2012.0009.
  • 62
    Van Couvering JAH. 1980. Community evolution in Africa during the Cenozoic. In: Berensmeyer AK, Hill A, editors. Fossils in the Making. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p 272298.
  • 63
    Vizcaíno SF, Bargo MS, Fariña RA. 2008. Form, function, and paleobiology in xenarthrans. In: Vizcaíno SF, Loughry WJ, editors, The Biology of the Xenarthra, Gainesville: University Press of Florida. p 8699.
  • 64
    Vizcaíno SF, Bargo MS, Kay RF, Fariña RA, Di Giacomo M, Perry MG, Prevosti FJ, Toledo N, Cassini GH, Fernicola JC. 2010. A baseline paleoecological study for the Santa Cruz Formation (late-Early Miocene) at the Atlantic coast of Patagonia, Argentina. Palaeogeogr Palaeocl 292: 507519.
  • 65
    Vizcaíno SF, Bargo MS, Kay RF, Milne N. 2006. The armadillos (Mammalia, Xenarthra) of the Santa Cruz Formation (Early-Middle Miocene). An approach to their paleobiology. Palaeogeogr Palaeocl 237: 255269.
  • 66
    Vizcaíno SF, Fernicola JC, Bargo MS. 2012. Paleobiology of Santacrucian glyptodonts and armadillos (Xenarthra, Cingulata). In: Vizcaíno SF, Kay RF, Bargo MS, editors. Early Miocene Paleobiology in Patagonia: high-latitude paleocommunities of the Santa Cruz Formation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p 194215.
  • 67
    White JL. 1993a. Functional and phylogenetical implications of the postcranial skeleton of fossils sloths for the evolution of arboreality in tree sloths. PhD dissertation. State University of New York at Stony Brook. p. 835.
  • 68
    White JL. 1993b. Indicators of locomotor habits in Xenarthrans: evidence for locomotor heterogeneity among fossil sloths. J Vertebr Paleontol 13: 230242.
  • 69
    White JL. 1997. Locomotor adaptations in Miocene Xenarthrans. In: Kay RF, Madden RH, Cifelli RL, Flynn JJ, editors. Vertebrate Paleontology in the Neotropics. The Miocene Fauna of La Venta, Colombia. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. p 246264.
  • 70
    Windle BCA, Parsons FG. 1899. On the myology of Edentata. Proc Zool Soc London 1: 314339.