Ischemic heart disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Stem cell-based therapy, which aims to restore cardiac structure and function by regeneration of functional myocardium, has recently been proposed as a novel alternative treatment modality. Resident cardiac stem cells (CSCs) in adult hearts are a key cell type under investigation. CSCs have been shown to be able to repair damaged myocardium and improve myocardial function in both human and animal studies. This approach relies not only on the proliferation of the CSCs, but also upon their migration to the site of injury within the heart. Here, we briefly review reported CSC populations and discuss signaling factors and pathways required for the migration of CSCs. Anat Rec, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.