This study aims to systematically investigate intrapulmonary artery segmentation, blood vessel wall characteristics and structure organization, and the interrelation between intrapulmonary artery structure and plateau hypoxia adaptation in yak. The normal intrapulmonary artery structure of the yak had been studied using histological methods and transmission electron microscopy. The intrapulmonary artery of the yak was also examined using morphometric analysis and angiography. Results showed that the elastic intrapulmonary artery is divided into two types, namely, classical and transitional elastic segments. The muscular intrapulmonary artery is divided into three types, namely, transitional, classical muscular, and muscular arteriole segments. In the transitional elastic artery, elastic fibers and smooth muscles are linked through three models of ends, lateral branches, and branch tops. Two phenomena are possible for the transition from the elastic intrapulmonary artery to the muscular artery. One phenomenon postulates that a less elastic membrane is first increased and then suddenly decreased, and another supposes that the elastic membrane is gradually reduced and assembled in one to two layers before entering the transitional muscular artery. The smooth muscle of the intrapulmonary artery tunica media had more apophysis; it was physically connected with elastic membrane or fiber and composed of functionally resilient unit of the intrapulmonary arterial wall. Glycogenosomes increased in the muscular intrapulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. It exist one to two layers intact smooth muscle in intrapulmonary arteriole, the presence of intact smooth muscle in the intrapulmonary arteriole of the yak is a kind of structure adaptation to low-oxygen environment. Anat Rec, 296:1775–1788, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.