Periodontitis, a recognized disease worldwide, is bacterial infection-induced inflammation of the periodontal tissues that results in loss of alveolar bone. Once it occurs, damaged tissue cannot be restored to its original form, even if decontaminating treatments are performed. For more than half a century, studies have been conducted to investigate true periodontal regeneration. Periodontal regeneration is the complete reconstruction of the damaged attachment apparatus, which contains both hard tissue (alveolar bone and cementum) and soft tissue (periodontal ligament). Several treatments, including bone grafts, guided tissue regeneration with physical barriers for epithelial cells, and growth factors have been approved for clinical use; however, their indications and outcomes are limited. To overcome these limitations, the concept of “tissue engineering” was introduced. Combination treatment using cells, growth factors, and scaffolds, has been studied in experimental animal models, and some studies have been translated into clinical trials. In this review, we focus on recent progressive tissue engineering studies and discuss future perspectives on periodontal regeneration. Anat Rec, 297:16–25. 2014. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.