In the 1990s, new concepts of microscopy revolutionized the imaging field by breaking the lateral resolution diffraction limit for the first time, even with propagating light and regular lenses (i.e., far-field). In 2006, several research groups independently showed super-resolution microscopy using high-precision localization of single fluorophores. These new developments in single-molecule spectroscopy enabled a different approach to achieving nanometer-scale optical microscopy. Direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM) is a technique of single-molecule super-resolution imaging that does not require an activator fluorophore. This technique is used to visualize cellular structures with a resolution of approximately 20 nm. dSTORM is compatible with many conventionally used fluorophores. This article provides an overview of the principles and uses of dSTORM. Advantages and disadvantages of dSTORM are also discussed. Anat Rec, 297:2227–2231, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.