SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

LITERATURE CITED

  • Ankel F. 1962. Vergleichende Untersuchungen iiber die Skelettmorphologie des Greifschwanzes sudamerikanischer Affen. Z. Morph. Oekol. Tiere 52:131170.
  • Ankel F. 1965. Der canalis sacralis als indikator für die länge der caudal region der primaten. Folia Primatol. 3:263276.
  • Ankel F. 1972. Vertebral morphology of fossil and extant primates. In: Tuttle, R, editor. The functional and evolutionary biology of primates. Chicago: Aldine, p 223240.
  • Argot C. 2003. Functional-adaptive anatomy of the axial skeleton of some extant marsupials and the paleobiology of the paleocene marsupials Mayulestes ferox and Pucadelphys andinus. J Morph 255:279300.
  • Bergeson DJ. 1992. The use of the prehensile tail in Alouatta and Cebus. Am J Phys Anthropol 14:48.
  • Bergeson DJ. 1995. The ecological role of the platyrrhine prehensile tail. Am J Phys Anthropol 20:6465.
  • Bergeson DJ. 1996. The positional behavior and prehensile tail use of Alouatta palliata, Ateles geoffroyi, and Cebus capucinus. PhD Dissertation, Washington University, St. Louis.
  • Bezanson MF. 2005. Leap bridge or ride? Ontogenetic influences on positional behavior in Cebus and Alouatta. In: Estrada A, Garber PA, Pavelka MSM, Luecke L, editors. New perspectives in the study of Mesoamerican primates: distribution, ecology, behavior and conservation. New York: Springer. p 333348.
  • Bezanson MF. 2006. Ontogenetic patterns of positional behavior in Cebus capucinus and Alouatta palliata. PhD dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.
  • Bezanson MF. 2009. Life history and locomotion in Cebus capucinus and Alouatta palliata. Am J Phys Anthropol 140:508517.
  • Bininda-Emonds ORP, Cardillo M, Jones KE, MacPhee RDE, Beck RMD, Grenyer R, Price SA, Vos RA, Gittleman JL, Purvis A. 2007. The delayed rise of present-day mammals. Nature 446:507512.
  • Bogduk N, Twomey L. 2005. Clinical anatomy of the lumbar spine and sacrum. Livingstone: Churchill.
  • Buck C, Tolman N, Tolman W. 1925. The tail as a balancing organ in mice. J Mammal 6:267271.
  • Byron C, Kunz H, Matuszek H, Lewis S, Van Valkinburgh D. 2011. Rudimentary pedal grasping in mice and implications for terminal branch arboreal quadrupedalism. J Morph 272:230240.
  • Currey JD. 1984. The mechanical adaptations of bones. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press.
  • Deinard A, Smith, DG. 2001. Phylogenetic relationships among the macaques: evidence from the nuclear locus NRAMP1. J Hum Evol 41:4559.
  • Demes B, Jungers WL, Fleagle JG, Wunderlich RE, Richmond BG, Lemelin P. 1996. Body size and leaping kinematics in Malagasy vertical clingers and leapers. J Hum Evol 31:367388.
  • Dor M. 1937. La morphologie de la queue des mammiferes. Paris: Pierre Andre.
  • Emerson SB. 1985. Jumping and leaping. In: Hildebrand M, Bramble DM, Liem KF, Wake DB, editors. Functional vertebrate morphology. Cambridge: Belknap Press. p 5872.
  • Essner RL. 2002. Three-dimensional launch kinematics in leaping, parachuting and gliding squirrels. J Exp Biol 205:2469.
  • Fa JE. 1985. Baby care in barbary macaque. In: Macdonald D, editor. Primates. New York: Torstar Books. p 9293.
  • Fa JE. 1989. The genus Macaca: a review of taxonomy and evolution. Mammal Rev. 19:4581.
  • Fleagle JG. 1984. Size and adaptation in primates. In: Jungers WL, editor. Size and scaling in primate biology. New York: Plenum Press. p 119.
  • Fleagle JG. 1999. Primate adaptation and evolution. San Diego: Academic Press.
  • Flower WH. 1876. An introduction to the osteology of the mammalia: being the substance of the course of lectures delivered at the Royal College of Surgeons of England in 1870. Macmillan.
  • Fooden J. 1969. Taxonomy and evolution of the monkeys of Celebes (Primates: Cercopithecidae). Karger: Basel.
  • Fooden J. 1975. Taxonomy and evolution of liontail and pigtail macaques (Primates: Cercopithecidae). Fieldiana Zool 67:1169.
  • Fooden J. 1988. Taxonomy and evolution of the sinica group of macaques: Interspecific comparisons and synthesis. Fieldiana Zool 45:144.
  • Fooden, J., 1997. Tail length variation in Macaca fascicularis and M. mulatta. Primates 38:221232.
  • Fooden J. 2006. Comparative review of fascicularis-group species of macaques (Primates: Macaca). Fieldiana Zool 107:144.
  • Fooden J. 2007. Systematic review of the barbary macaque, Macaca sylvanus (Linnaeus, 1758). Fieldiana Zool 113:158.
  • Fooden J, Albrecht GH. 1999. Tail length evolution in fascicularis group macaques (Cercopithecidae: Macaca). Int J Primatol 20:431440.
  • Francis CM. 2008. A field guide to the mammals of southeast asia. London: New Holland.
  • Freckleton RP, Harvey PH, and Pagel M. 2002. Phylogenetic analysis and comparative data: a test and review of evidence. Am Nat 160:712726.
  • Garber PA, Rehg JA. 1999. The ecological role of the prehensile tail in white-faced capuchins (Cebus capucinus). Am J Phys Anthropol 110:325339.
  • Gebo DL. 1992. Locomotor and postural behavior in Alouatta palliata and Cebus capucinus. Am J Primatol 26:277290.
  • German RZ. 1982. The functional morphology of caudal vertebrae in New World monkeys. Am J Phys Anthropol 58:453459.
  • Grand T. 1977. Body weight: its relation to tissue composition, segment distribution, and motor function. I. Interspecific comparisons. Am J Phys Anthropol 47:211239.
  • Groves CP. 2001. Primate taxonomy. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press.
  • Groves CP. 2005. Order primates. In: Wilson DE, Reeder DM, editors. Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference, 3rd ed. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Vol. 1: p 111184.
  • Hamada Y, Yamamoto A, Kunimatsu Y, Tojima S, Mouri T, Kawamoto Y. 2012. Variability of tail length in hybrids of the Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) and the Taiwanese macaque (Macaca cyclopis). Primates 53:397411.
  • Harrison T. 1998. Evidence for a tail in Proconsul heseloni. Am J Phys Anthropol 26:9394.
  • Hartman CG, Straus WL. 1933. The anatomy of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). Baltimore: The Williams & Wilkins Company.
  • Hatt RT. 1932. The vertebral columns of ricochetal rodents. Bull AMNH 63, article 6.
  • Hickman G. 1979. The mammalian tail: a review of functions. Mammal Rev 9:143157.
  • Hildebrand M, Goslow. 2001. Analysis of vertebrate structure. New York, NY: Wiley.
  • Horner B. 1954. Arboreal adaptations of Peromyscus, with special reference to use of the tail. Contrib Lab Vert Biol 61:184.
  • Igarashi M, Levy J. 1981. Locomotor balance performance of short-tailed squirrel monkeys. J Med Primatol 10:136140.
  • Ihaka R, Gentleman R. 1996. R: a language for data analysis and graphics. J Comp Graph Stats, 5(3):299314.
  • Jenkins PD. 1990. Catalogue of Primates in the British Museum (Natural History) and Elsewhere in the British Isles. Part V: The Apes, Superfamily Hominoidea. The British Museum (Natural History), London.
  • Jungers WL. 1988. Relative joint size and hominoid locomotor adaptations with implications for the evolution of hominid bipedalism. J Hum Evol 17:247265.
  • Kapandji IA. 2008. The physiology of the joints (V3): the spinal column, pelvic girdle and head. Paris: Lavoisier.
  • Kimura K, Konishi M, Takahashi Y, Iwamoto. 1986. The skeletal system of Macaca fascicularis—description and measurement, Part 3: the vertebrae. J Natl Def Med Coll 11:1934.
  • Larson S, Stern J. 2006. Maintenance of above-branch balance during primate arboreal quadrupedalism: coordinated use of forearm rotators and tail motion. Am J Phys Anthropol 129:7181.
  • Lawler RR, Stamps C. 2002. The relationship between tail use and positional behavior in Alouatta palliata. Primatol 43:147152.
  • Lemelin P. 1995. Comparative and functional myology of the prehensile tail in New World monkeys. J Morphol 224:351368.
  • Maigne JY, Tamalet B. 1996. Standardized radiologic protocol for the study of common coccygodynia and characteristics of the lesions observed in the sitting position: Clinical elements differentiating luxation, hypermobility, and normal mobility. Spine 21:25882593.
  • Martin R. 1968. Reproduction and ontogeny in tree-shrews (Tupaia belangeri), with reference to their general behaviour and taxonomic relationships. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie 25:409495.
  • Martins EP, Hansen TF. 1997. Phylogenies and the comparative method: a general approach to incorporating phylogenetic information into the analysis of interspecific data. Am Nat 149:646667.
  • Meldrum DJ. 1998. Tail-assisted hind limb suspension as a transitional behavior in the evolution of the platyrrhine prehensile tail. In: Strasser E, et al., editors. Primate locomotion: recent advances. New York: Plenum. p 145156.
  • Miller GS. 1900. Key to the land mammals of northeastern North America. Albany: University of the State of New York.
  • Nakatsukasa M, Tsujikawa H, Shimizu D, Takano T, Kunimatsu Y, Nakano Y, Ishida H. 2003. Definitive evidence for tail loss in Nacholapithecus, an East African Miocene hominoid. J Hum Evol 45:179186.
  • Napier PH. 1981. Catalogue of Primates in the British Museum (Natural History) and Elsewhere in the British Isles, Part 2: Family Cercopithecidae, Subfamily: Cercopithecinae. British Museum (Natural History), London.
  • Nowak RM. 1991. Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed., Vol. 1. Baltimore and London: J. Hopkins University Press.
  • Organ JM. 2006. To grasp or not to grasp? Structure and function of platyrrhine caudal vertebrae. Am J Phys Anthropol (S42):142.
  • Organ JM. 2007. The functional anatomy of prehensile and non-prehensile tails of the Platyrrhini (Primates) and Procyonidae (Carnivora). PhD Dissertation. The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD.
  • Organ JM. 2010. Structure and function of platyrrhine caudal vertebrae. Anat Rec 293:730745.
  • Organ JM, Teaford MF, Taylor AB. 2009. Functional correlates of fiber architecture of the lateral caudal musculature in prehensile and nonprehensile tails of the Platyrrhini (Primates) and Procyonidae (Carnivora). Anat Rec 292:827841.
  • Organ JM, Muchilinski MN, Deane AS. 2011. Mechanoreceptivity of prehensile tail skin varies between atelines and Cebus. Anat Rec 294(12):20642072.
  • Pagel M. 1999. Inferring the historical patterns of biological evolution. Nature 401:877884.
  • Paradis E, Claude J, and Strimmer K. 2004. APE: analyses of phylogenetics and evolution in R language. Bioinformatics 20:289290.
  • Parker SP. 1990. Grzimek's encyclopedia of mammals, Vol. 2. New York: McGraw Hill.
  • Pinheiro J, Bates D, DebRoy S, Sarkar D, and R Core Team. 2014. nlme: Linear and Nonlinear Mixed Effects Models. R package version 3.1–117.
  • Preuschoft H, Witte H, Christian A, Fischer M. 1996. Size influences on primate locomotion and body shape, with special emphasis on the locomotion of ‘small mammals’. Folia Primatol. 66: 93112.
  • Procter-Gray E, Ganslosser U. 1986. The individual behaviors of Lumholtz's tree-kangaroo: repertoire and taxonomic implications. J Mammal 67:343352.
  • R Development Core Team. 2011. R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria.
  • Rodman PS. 1979. Skeletal differentiation of Macaca fascicularis and Macaca nemestrina in relation to arboreal and terrestrial quadrupedalism. Am J Phys Anthropol 51:5162.
  • Rose MD. 1974. Postural adaptations in New and Old World monkeys. In: Jenkins FA, editor. Primate locomotion. New York: Academic Press. p 201222.
  • Rosenberger AL. 1983. Tale of tails: parallelism and prehensility. Am J Phys Anthropol 60:103107.
  • Rowe N. 1996. The pictorial guide to the living primates. New York: Pogonias Press.
  • Russo GA. 2010. Prezygapophyseal articular facet shape in the catarrhine thoracolumbar vertebral column. Am J Phys Anthropol 142:600612.
  • Russo GA, Shapiro, LJ. 2011. Morphological correlates of tail length in the catarrhine sacrum. J Hum Evol 30:223232.
  • Russo GA, Young JW. 2011. Tail growth tracks the ontogeny of prehensile tail use in capuchin monkeys (Cebus albifrons and C. apella). Am J Phys Anthropol 146:465473.
  • Russo GA, Fajardo RJ, Schmitz JE. 2012. Internal bone structure of the last sacral vertebra and its relationship to tail length. Am J Phys Anthropol 147:255256.
  • Saluja PG. 1988. The incidence of ossification of the sacrococcygeal joint. J Anat 156:1118.
  • Sanders WJ, Bodenbender BE. 1994. Morphometric analysis of lumbar vertebra UMP 67–28: implications for spinal function and phylogeny of the Miocene Moroto hominoid. J Hum Evol 26:203237.
  • Schmidt-Nielsen K. 1984. Scaling: why is animal size so important? Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Schmitt D, Rose MD, Turnquist JE, Lemelin P. 2005. Role of the prehensile tail during ateline locomotion: experimental and osteological evidence. Am J Phys Anthropol 126:435446.
  • Schmidt, E. 1886. Uber die Wirbelsaule der Primaten. Korr Bl Ges Anthrop Urgesch 17:56.
  • Shapiro LJ. 1993. Functional morphology of the vertebral column in primates. In: Gebo D, editor. Postcranial adaptation in nonhuman primates. DeKalb: Northern Illinois University Press. p 121149.
  • Shapiro LJ. 2007. Morphological and functional differentiation in the lumbar spine of lorisids and galagids. Am J Primatol 69:86102.
  • Shapiro LJ, Simons, C. 2002. Functional aspects of strepsirrhine lumbar vertebral bodies and spinous processes. J Hum Evol 42:753783.
  • Shapiro LJ, Seiffert C, Godfrey L, Jungers W, Simons E, Randria G. 2005. Morphometric analysis of lumbar vertebrae in extinct Malagasy strepsirrhines. Am J Phys Anthropol 128:823839.
  • Siegel M. 1970. The tail, locomotion and balance in mice. Am J Phys Anthropol 33:101102.
  • Silva M, Downing JA. 1995. CRC handbook of mammalian body masses. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC press.
  • Smith R, Jungers W. 1997. Body mass in comparative primatology. J Hum Evol 32:523559.
  • Sprankel H. 1965. Untersuchungen an Tarsius. Folia primatologica, 3:153188.
  • Stevens N, Wright K, Covert H, Nadler T. 2008. Tail postures of four quadrupedal leaf monkeys (Pygathrix nemaeus, P. cinerea, Trachypithecus delacouri and T. hatinhensis) at the Endangered Primate Rescue Center, Cuc Phuong National Park, Vietnam. Viet. J Primatol 2:1324.
  • Tito G. 2008. New remains of Eremotherium laurillardi (Lund, 1842)(Megatheriidae, Xenarthra) from the coastal region of Ecuador. J South Am Earth Sci 26:424434.
  • Wada N, Hori H, Tokuriki M. 1993. Electromyographic and kinematic studies of tail movements in dogs during treadmill locomotion. J Morph 217:105113.
  • Walker C, Vierck C, Ritz L. 1998. Balance in the cat: role of the tail and effects of sacrocaudal transection. Behav Brain Res 91:4147.
  • Ward CV. 1993. Torso morphology and locomotion in Proconsul nyanzae. Am J Phys Anthropol 92:291328.
  • Ward CV, Walker A, Teaford MF. 1991. Proconsul did not have a tail. J Hum Evol 21:215220.
  • Ward CV, Walker A, Teaford MF. 1999. Still no evidence for a tail in Proconsul heseloni. Am J Phys Anthropol 28:273.
  • Wilson, DR, 1972. Tail reduction in Macaca. In: Tuttle R, editor. The functional and evolutionary biology of primates. New York: Aldine Press. p 241261.
  • Woon JT, Stringer MD. 2012. Clinical anatomy of the coccyx: a systematic review. Clin Anat 25:158167.
  • Youlatos D. 1999. Tail-use in capuchins. Neotrop Prim 7:1620.
  • Youlatos D. 2003. Osteological correlates of tail prehensility in carnivorans. J Zool 259:423430.