SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

LITERATURE CITED

  • Abramson AS, Delagi EF. 1961. Influence of weight-bearing and muscle contraction on disuse osteoporosis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 42: 147151.
  • Akeson WH. 1961. An experimental study of joint stiffness. Am J Orthop 43A: 10221034.
  • Akeson WH, Amiel D, LaViolette D. 1967. The connective-tissue response to immobility: a study of the chondroitin-4 and 6-sulfate and dermatan sulfate changes in periarticular connective tissue of control and immobilized knees of dogs. Clin Orthop 51: 183197.
  • Anderson C. 1982. Manual for the examination of bone. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. p 8.
  • Anderson JE, Lentz DL, Johnson RB. 1993. Recovery from disuse osteopenia coincident to restoration of muscle strength in mdx mice. Bone 14: 625634.
  • Baisch F, Beck L, Blomqvist G, Wolfram G, Drescher J, Rome JL, Drummer C. 2000. Cardiovascular response to lower body negative pressure stimulation before, during, and after space flight. Eur J Clin Invest 30: 10551065.
  • Bowman BM, Miller SC. 1999. Skeletal mass, chemistry and growth during and after multiple reproductive cycles in the rat. Bone 25: 553559.
  • Bowman BM, Siska CC, Miller SC. 2002. Greatly increased cancellous bone formation with rapid improvements in bone structure in the rat maternal skeleton after lactation. J Bone Miner Res 17: 19541960.
  • Boyde A, Hobdell MH. 1969. Scanning electron microscopy of primary membrane bone. Z Zellforsch 99: 98108.
  • Brommage R, DeLuca HP. 1985. Regulation of bone mineral loss during lactation. Am J Physiol 248: E182E187.
  • Currey JD, Hughes SM. 1973. The effects of pregnancy and lactation on some mechanical properties of the femora of the rat. Calc Tiss Res 11: 112123.
  • Doyle F, Brown J, Lachance C. 1970. Relation between bone mass and muscle weight. Lancet 1: 391393.
  • Duke PJ, Durnova GN, Montufar-Solis D. 1990. Histomorphometric and electron microscopic analyses of tibial epiphyseal plates from Cosmos 1887 rats. FASEB J 4: 4146.
  • Edgerton VR, Zhou MY, Ohira Y, Klitgaard H, Jiang B, Bell G, Harris B, Saltin B, Gollnick PD, Roy RR, Day MK. 1995. Human fiber size and enzymatic properties after 5 and 11 days of spaceflight. J Appl Physiol 78: 17331739.
  • Edgerton VR, Roy RR, Recktenwald MR, Hodgson JA, Grindeland RE, Kozlovskaya I. 2000. Neural and neuroendocrine adaptations to microgravity and ground-based models of microgravity. J Gravitat Physiol 7: 4552.
  • Geiser M, Trueta J. 1958. Muscle action, bone rarefaction and bone formation. J Bone Joint Surg (Br) 40B: 282311.
  • Jiang B, Ohira Y, Roy RR, Nguyen Q, Ilyina-Kakueva EI, Oganov V, Edgerton VR. 1992. Adaptation of fibers in fast-twitch muscles of rats to spaceflight and hindlimb suspension. J Appl Physiol 73(Suppl 2): 58S65S.
  • Jones HH, Priest JD, Hayes WC, Tichenor WC, Nagel DA. 1977. Humeral hypertrophy in response to exercise. J Bone Joint Surg (Am) 59A: 204218.
  • Klein L, Player JS, Heiple KG, Bahniuk E, Goldberg VM. 1982. Isotopic evidence for resorption of soft tissues and bone in immobilized dogs. J Bone Joint Surg (Am) 64A: 225230.
  • Kovacs CS, Kronenberg HM. 1997. Maternal-fetal calcium and bone metabolism during pregnancy, puerperium and lactation. Endocrine Rev 18: 832872.
  • Kraemer WJ, Staron RS, Gordon SE, Volek JS, Koziris LP, Duncan ND, Nindl BC, Gomez AL, Marx JO, Fry AC, Murray JD. 2000. The effects of 10 days of spaceflight on the shuttle Endeavour on predominantly fast-twitch muscles in the rat. Histochem Cell Biol 114: 349355.
  • Lanyon LE. 1984. Functional strain as a determinant for bone remodeling. Calcif Tissue Int 36(Suppl 1): S56S61.
  • Laros GS, Tipton CM, Cooper RR. 1971. Influence of physical activity on ligament insertions in the knees of dogs. J Bone Joint Surg (Am) 53A: 275286.
  • Loitz BJ, Zernicke RF, Vailas AC, Kody MH, Meals RA. 1989. Effects of short-term immobilization versus continuous passive motion on the biomechanical and biochemical properties of the rabbit tendon. Clin Orthop 244: 265271.
  • Luna LG. 1968. Handbook of histological staining methods. New York: McGraw-Hill. p 3637.
  • Macho L, Jezova D, Jurcovicova J, Kvetnansky R, Vigas M, Serova LB. 1993. Effect of space flight on the development of endocrine functions in rats. Endocrine Reg 27: 1722.
  • Martin TP, Edgerton VR, Grindeland RE. 1988. Influence of spaceflight on rat skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol 65: 23182325.
  • Martinez RH, Johnson RB. 1987. Effects of orthodontic forces on the morphology and diameter of Sharpey's fibers of the alveolar bone of the rat. Anat Rec 219: 1020.
  • Mechanic GL, Arnaud SB, Boyde A, Bromage TG, Buckendahl P, Elliott JC, Katz EP, Durnova GN. 1990. Regional distribution of mineral and matrix in the femurs of rats flown on Cosmos 1887 biosatellite. FASEB J 4: 3440.
  • Miller SC, Shupe JG, Redd EH, Miller MA, Omura TH. 1986. Changes in bone mineral and bone formation rates during pregnancy and lactation in rats. Bone 7: 283287.
  • Miller SC, Bowman BM. 1998. Comparison of bone loss during normal lactation with estrogen deficiency osteopenia and immobilization osteopenia in the rat. Anat Rec 251: 265274.
  • More C, Bettembuk P, Bhattoa HP, Balogh A. 2001. The effects of pregnancy and lactation on bone mineral density. Osteoporos Int 12: 732737.
  • Morey ER, Baylink DJ. 1978. Inhibition of bone formation during spaceflight. Science 201: 11381141.
  • Patterson-Buckendahl P, Arnaud SB, Mechanic GL, Martin RB, Grindeland RE, Cann CE. 1987. Fragility and composition of growing rat bone after one week in spaceflight. Am J Physiol 252: R240R246.
  • Plaut K, Maple R, Vyas C, Munaim S, Darling A, Casey T, Alberts JR. 1999. The effects of spaceflight on mammary metabolism in pregnant rats. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 222: 8589.
  • Prentice A. 2000. Calcium in pregnancy and lactation. Ann Rev Nutr 20: 249272.
  • Prince RL, Price RI, Ho S. 1988. Forearm bone loss in hemiplegia: a model for the study of immobilization osteoporosis. J Bone Miner Res 3: 305310.
  • Riley DA, Ellis S, Slocum BH, Satyanarayana T, Bain JL, Sedlak FR. 1987. Hypogravity-induced atrophy of rat soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles. Muscle Nerve 10: 560568.
  • Riley DA, Ilyina-Kakueva EI, Ellis S, Bain JL, Slocum GR, Sedlak FR. 1990. Skeletal muscle fiber, nerve and blood vessel breakdown in space-flown rats. FASEB J 4: 8491.
  • Rubin CT, Lanyon LE. 1984. Regulation of bone formation by applied dynamic loads. J Bone Joint Surg (Am) 66A: 397402.
  • Rubin CT, Lanyon LE. 1985. Regulation of bone mass by mechanical strain magnitude. Calcif Tissue Int 37: 411417.
  • Short E, Johnson RB. 1990. Effects of tooth function on adjacent alveolar bone and Sharpey's fibers of the rat periodontium. Anat Rec 227: 391396.
  • Simmons DJ, Grynpas MD, Rosenberg GP. 1990. Maturation of bone and dentin matrices in rats flown on the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 1887. FASEB J 4: 2933.
  • Somody L, Fagette S, Frutoso J, Gharib C, Gauquelin G. 1998. Recording heart rate and blood pressure during parabolic flight. Life Sci 63: 851857.
  • Staron RS, Kraemer WJ, Hikida RS, Reed DW, Murray JD, Campos GE, Gordon SE. 1998. Comparison of soleus muscles from rats exposed to microgravity for 10 versus 14 days. Histochem Cell Biol 110: 7380.
  • Turner RT, Bell NH, Duvall P, Bobyn JD, Spector M, Morey-Holton E, Baylink DJ. 1985. Spaceflight results in formation of defective bone. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 180: 544549.
  • Vajda EG, Bowman BM, Miller SC. 2001. Cancellous and cortical bone mechanical properties and tissue dynamics during pregnancy, lactation, and postlactation in the rat. Biol Reprod 65: 689695.
  • Vanderby R, Vailas AC, Graf BK, Thielke RJ, Ulm MJ, Kohles SS, Kunz DN. 1990. Acute modification of biomechanical properties of the bone-ligament insertion to rat limb unweighting. FASEB J 4: 24992505.
  • Warshawsky H, Moore G. 1967. A technique for the fixation and decalcification of rat incisors for electron microscopy. J Histochem Cytochem 15: 542549.
  • White RJ, Blomqvist CG. 1998. Central venous pressure and cardiac function during spaceflight. J Appl Physiol 87: 12401241.
  • Wolff J. 1988. The classic: concerning the interrelationship between form and function of the individual parts of the organism. Clin Orthop 228: 211.
  • Woo SLY, Gomez MA, Woo YK, Akeson WH. 1982. Mechanical properties of tendons and ligaments: II, the relationships of immobilization and exercise on tissue remodeling. Biorheology 19: 397408.
  • Wronski TJ, Morey-Holton E, Jee WS. 1981. Skeletal alterations in rats during space flight. Adv Space Res 1: 135140.
  • Wronski TJ, Morey ER. 1983. Effects of spaceflight on periosteal bone formation in rats. Am J Physiol 244: R305R309.
  • Yamada G, Sugimura K, Nakamura S, Yamada MO, Tohno Y, Maruyama I, Kitajima I, Minami T. 1997. Trace element composition and histological analysis of rat bones from the space shuttle. Life Sci 60: 635642.