Architecture and mineralization are important determinants of trabecular bone quality. To date, no quantitative information is available on changes in trabecular bone architecture and mineralization of newly formed bone during development. Three-dimensional architecture and mineralization of the trabecular bone in the mandibular condyle from six pigs of different developmental ages were investigated with micro-CT. Anteriorly in the condyle, a more advanced state of remodeling was observed than posteriorly, where more active growth takes place. Posteriorly, the bone volume fraction increased with age (r = 0.87; P < 0.05) by an increase of trabecular thickness (r = 0.88; P < 0.05), while the number of trabeculae declined (r = −0.86; P < 0.05). Anteriorly, despite an increase in trabecular thickness (r = 0.97; P < 0.001), there was no change in bone volume fraction due to a simultaneous decline in trabecular number (r = −0.84; P < 0.05) and increase in trabecular separation (r = 0.95; P < 0.01). Posteriorly, rods were remodeled into plates as expressed by the structure model index (r = −0.97; P < 0.001), whereas anteriorly, a plate-like structure was already present in early stages. The trabecular structure had a clear orientation throughout the developmental process. The global degree of mineralization increased both anteriorly (r = 0.86; P < 0.05) and posteriorly (r = 0.89; P < 0.05). We suggest that the degree of mineralization does not depend on the bone volume, but on the thickness of the trabeculae as the mineralized centers of trabeculae were getting larger and more highly mineralized with age compared to their appositional layers. This indicates that besides apposition of new bone material on the surface of trabeculae, the mineralized tissue in their centers still changes and matures. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.