The vomeronasal system is currently a topical issue since the dual functional specificity, vomeronasal system-pheromones, has recently been questioned. Irrespective of the tools used to put such specificity in doubt, the diversity of the anatomy of the system itself in the animal kingdom is probably of more importance than has previously been considered. It has to be pointed out that a true vomeronasal system is integrated by the vomeronasal organ, the accessory olfactory bulb, and the so-called vomeronasal amygdala. Therefore, it seems reasonable to establish the corresponding differences between a well-developed vomeronasal system and other areas of the nasal cavity in which putative olfactory receptors, perhaps present in other kinds of mammals, may be able to detect pheromones and to process them. In consequence, a solid pattern for one such system in one particular species needs to be chosen. Here we report on an analysis of the general morphological characteristics of the accessory olfactory bulb in mice, a species commonly used in the study of the vomeronasal system, during growth and in adults. Our results indicate that the critical period for the formation of this structure comprises the stages between the first and the fifth day after birth, when the stratification of the bulb, the peculiarities of each type of cell, and the final building of glomeruli are completed. In addition, our data suggest that the conventional plexiform layers of the main olfactory bulb are not present in the accessory bulb. Anat Rec Part A, 288A:1009–1025, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.