Head vascular anatomy of the greater (or Caribbean) flamingo (Phoenicopterus ruber) is investigated and illustrated through the use of a differential contrast, dual vascular injection technique, and high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (CT), allowing arteries and veins to be differentiated radiographically. Vessels were digitally isolated with segmentation tools and reconstructed in 3D to facilitate topographical visualization of the cephalic vascular tree. Major vessels of the temporal, orbital, pharyngeal, and encephalic regions are described and illustrated, which confirm that the general pattern of avian cephalic vasculature is evolutionarily conservative. In addition to numerous arteriovenous vascular devices, a previously undescribed, large, bilateral, paralingual cavernous sinus that excavates a large bony fossa on the medial surface of the mandible was identified. Despite the otherwise conservative vascular pattern, this paralingual sinus was found only in species of flamingo and is not known otherwise in birds. The paralingual sinus remains functionally enigmatic, but a mechanical role in association with the peculiar lingual-pumping mode of feeding in flamingos is perhaps the most likely hypothesis. Anat Rec Part A, 288A:1031–1041, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.