This work analyzes the significance of anatomical knowledge in the contemporary age through the history of a prestigious institution, the Anatomy Museum of Naples. The museum's past was ineluctably linked not only to the local sociopolitical events but also to the scientific developments of medicine. The museum is an academic place where the importance of the anatomic science in the contemporary age both in the scientific and in the cultural fora is evident. Anat Rec (Part B: New Anat) 289B:92–97, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.