• Bemisia tabaci;
  • biotypes B and Q;
  • pyriproxyfen;
  • neonicotinoids;
  • acetamiprid;
  • thiamethoxam;
  • resistance to insecticides;
  • selection to insecticides


Resistance monitoring for Bemisia tabaci field populations to the juvenile hormone mimic, pyriproxyfen, was conducted from 1996 to 2003 in commercial cotton fields in two areas of Israel: the Ayalon Valley (central Israel) and the Carmel Coast (northwestern Israel). Although the use of pyriproxyfen ceased in these areas in 1996–1997 (because of the resistance), resistance levels to pyriproxyfen declined to some extent in the fields but remained quite stable, and the susceptibility has not been totally restored. Two strains of B. tabaci collected from the Ayalon Valley in the late 1999 and 2002 cotton seasons (AV99L, AV02L) were assayed for their susceptibility to pyriproxyfen at F1, and subsequently a line of each strain was kept under controlled conditions without exposure to insecticides. After maintenance of more than 20 generations under laboratory conditions, the resistance to pyriproxyfen in the untreated strains substantially declined. This decline was concurrent with a replacement of Q biotype by B-type under non-insecticidal regimes; apparently B biotype was more competitive than the pyriproxyfen-resistant Q-type. Selection under controlled conditions with neonicotinoids on these B. tabaci strains resulted in continued pyriproxyfen resistance, predominantly of Q biotype. Based on our data, applications of either pyriproxyfen or neonicotinoids may select for biotype Q, which would survive to a greater degree where these insecticides are applied. Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol. 58:216–225, 2005. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.