• Anopheles minimus;
  • CYPOR;
  • CYP6AA3;
  • deltamethrin;
  • flavin cofactors;
  • kinetic study


The NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CYPOR) enzyme is a membrane-bound protein and contains both FAD and FMN cofactors. The enzyme transfers two electrons, one at a time, from NADPH to cytochrome P450 enzymes to function in the enzymatic reactions. We previously expressed in Escherichia coli the membrane-bound CYPOR (flAnCYPOR) from Anopheles minimus mosquito. We demonstrated the ability of flAnCYPOR to support the An. minimus CYP6AA3 enzyme activity in deltamethrin degradation in vitro. The present study revealed that the flAnCYPOR purified enzyme, analyzed by a fluorometric method, readily lost its flavin cofactors. When supplemented with exogenous flavin cofactors, the activity of flAnCYPOR-mediated cytochrome c reduction was increased. Mutant enzymes containing phenylalanine substitutions at leucine residues 86 and 219 were constructed and found to increase retention of FMN cofactor in the flAnCYPOR enzymes. Kinetic study by measuring cytochrome c–reducing activity indicated that the wild-type and mutant flAnCYPORs followed a non-classical two-site Ping-Pong mechanism, similar to rat CYPOR. The single mutant (L86F or L219F) and double mutant (L86F/L219F) flAnCYPOR enzymes, upon reconstitution with the An. minimus cytochrome P450 CYP6AA3 and a NADPH-regenerating system, increased CYP6AA3-mediated deltamethrin degradation compared to the wild-type flAnCYPOR enzyme. The increased enzyme activity could illustrate a more efficient electron transfer of AnCYPOR to CYP6AA3 cytochrome P450 enzyme. Addition of extra flavin cofactors could increase CYP6AA3-mediated activity supported by wild-type and mutant flAnCYPOR enzymes. Thus, both leucine to phenylalanine substitutions are essential for flAnCYPOR enzyme in supporting CYP6AA3-mediated metabolism. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.