Neuropeptide F (NPF), the invertebrate homolog of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in vertebrates, shares similarity of structure and function with NPY. However, a few NPYs were also found in some insect species. In this paper, two neuropeptide genes encoding a NPF and a NPY were cloned from a tobacco budworm Helicoverpa assulta cDNA library. The npf1 gene further produces two splicing variants of rnRNAs, i.e. npf1a (lacks the 120 bp segment) and npf1b (includes a 120 bp segment). These two splicing variants form two mature peptides, NPF1a and NPF1b by modification of transcripts. NPF and NPY co-exist in H. assulta.