• 1
    Reincke M, Heppner C, Petzke F, Allolio B, Arlt W, Mbulamberi D, et al. Impairment of adrenocortical function associated with increased plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 concentrations in African trypanosomiasis. Neuroimmunomodulation 1994; 1: 1422.
  • 2
    Johnson EO, Vlachoyiannopoulos PG, Skopouli FN, Tzioufas AG, Moutsopoulos HM. Hypofunction of the stress axis in Sjogren's syndrome. J Rheumatol 1998; 25: 150814.
  • 3
    Zietz B, Reber T, Oertel M, Glück T, Schölmerich J, Straub RH. Altered function of the hypothalamic stress axes in patients with moderately active systemic lupus erythematosus. II. Dissociation between androstenedione, cortisol, or dehydroepiandrosterone and interleukin 6 or tumor necrosis factor. J Rheumatol 2000; 27: 9118.
  • 4
    Straub RH, Glück T, Cutolo M, Georgi J, Helmke K, Schölmerich J, et al. The adrenal steroid status in relation to inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor) in polymyalgia rheumatica. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2000; 39: 62431.
  • 5
    Van den Brink HR, Blankenstein MA, Koppeschaar HP, Bijlsma JW. Influence of disease activity on steroid hormone levels in peripheral blood of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 1993; 11: 64952.
  • 6
    Hall J, Morand EF, Medbak S, Zaman M, Perry L, Goulding NJ, et al. Abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in rheumatoid arthritis: effects of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and water immersion. Arthritis Rheum 1994; 37: 11327.
  • 7
    Gudbjornsson B, Skogseid B, Oberg K, Wide L, Hallgren R. Intact adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion but impaired cortisol response in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: effect of glucocorticoids. J Rheumatol 1996; 23: 596602.
  • 8
    Templ E, Koeller M, Riedl M, Wagner O, Graninger W, Luger A. Anterior pituitary function in patients with newly diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis. Br J Rheumatol 1996; 35: 3506.
  • 9
    Crofford LJ, Kalogeras KT, Mastorakos G, Magiakou MA, Wells J, Kanik KS, et al. Circadian relationships between interleukin (IL)-6 and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hormones: failure of IL-6 to cause sustained hypercortisolism in patients with early untreated rheumatoid arthritis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997; 82: 127983.
  • 10
    Cutolo M, Foppiani L, Prete C, Ballarino P, Sulli A, Villaggio B, et al. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis function in premenopausal women with rheumatoid arthritis not treated with glucocorticoids. J Rheumatol 1999; 26: 2828.
  • 11
    Gutierrez MA, Garcia ME, Rodriguez JA, Mardonez G, Jacobelli S, Rivero S. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: a controlled study using insulin hypoglycemia stress test and prolactin stimulation. J Rheumatol 1999; 26: 27781.
  • 12
    Demir H, Kelestimur F, Tunc M, Kirnap M, Ozugul Y. Hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and growth hormone axis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Scand J Rheumatol 1999; 28: 416.
  • 13
    Kanik KS, Chrousos GP, Schumacher HR, Crane ML, Yarboro CH, Wilder RL. Adrenocorticotropin, glucocorticoid, and androgen secretion in patients with new onset synovitis/rheumatoid arthritis: relations with indices of inflammation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000; 85: 14616.
  • 14
    Feher GK, Feher T, Zahumenszky Z. Study on the inactivation mechanism of androgens in rheumatoid arthritis: excretory rate of free and conjugated 17-ketosteroids. Endokrinologie 1979; 73: 16772.
  • 15
    Masi AT, Josipovic DB, Jefferson WE. Low adrenal androgenic-anabolic steroids in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA): gas-liquid chromatographic studies of RA patients and matched normal control women indicating decreased 11-deoxy-17-ketosteroid excretion. Semin Arthritis Rheum 1984; 14: 123.
  • 16
    Cutolo M, Balleari E, Giusti M, Monachesi M, Accardo S. Sex hormone status of male patients with rheumatoid arthritis: evidence of low serum concentrations of testosterone at baseline and after human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation. Arthritis Rheum 1988; 31: 13147.
  • 17
    Sambrook PN, Eisman JA, Champion GD, Pocock NA. Sex hormone status and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1988; 31: 9738.
  • 18
    Deighton CM, Watson MJ, Walker DJ. Sex hormones in postmenopausal HLA-identical rheumatoid arthritis discordant sibling pairs. J Rheumatol 1992; 19: 16637.
  • 19
    Hedman M, Nilsson E, de la Torre TB. Low blood and synovial fluid levels of sulpho-conjugated steroids in rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 1992; 10: 2530.
  • 20
    Valentino R, Savastano S, Tommaselli AP, Riccio A, Mariniello P, Pronesti G, et al. Hormonal pattern in women affected by rheumatoid arthritis. J Endocrinol Invest 1993; 16: 61924.
  • 21
    Mateo L, Nolla JM, Bonnin MR, Navarro MA, Roig-Escofet D. Sex hormone status and bone mineral density in men with rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 1995; 22: 145560.
  • 22
    Mirone L, Altomonte L, D'Agostino P, Zoli A, Barini A, Magaro M. A study of serum androgen and cortisol levels in female patients with rheumatoid arthritis: correlation with disease activity. Clin Rheumatol 1996; 15: 159.
  • 23
    Straub RH, Cutolo M. Involvement of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal/gonadal axis and the peripheral nervous system in rheumatoid arthritis: viewpoint based on a systemic pathogenetic role. Arthritis Rheum 2001; 44: 493507.
  • 24
    Ebringer A, Wilson C, Tiwana H. Is rheumatoid arthritis a form of reactive arthritis? J Rheumatol 2000; 27: 55963.
  • 25
    Toivanen P. From reactive arthritis to rheumatoid arthritis. J Autoimmun 2001; 16: 36971.
  • 26
    Franchimont D, Louis E, Dewe W, Martens H, Vrindts-Gevaert Y De Groote D, et al. Effects of dexamethasone on the profile of cytokine secretion in human whole blood cell cultures. Regul Pept 1998; 73: 5965.
  • 27
    Dozmorov IM, Miller RA. Generation of antigen-specific Th2 cells from unprimed mice in vitro: effects of dexamethasone and anti-IL-10 antibody. J Immunol 1998; 160: 27005.
  • 28
    Tamada K, Harada M, Abe K, Li T, Nomoto K. IL-4-producing NK1.1+ T cells are resistant to glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis: implications for the Th1/Th2 balance. J Immunol 1998; 161: 123947.
  • 29
    Wilder RL. Hormones and autoimmunity: animal models of arthritis. Baillieres Clin Rheumatol 1996; 10: 25971.
  • 30
    Arnett FC, Edworthy SM, Bloch DA, McShane DJ, Fries JF, Cooper NS, et al. The American Rheumatism Association 1987 revised criteria for the classification of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1988; 31: 31524.
  • 31
    Scott J, Huskisson EC. Graphic representation of pain. Pain 1976; 2: 17584.
  • 32
    Larsen A, Thoen J. Hand radiography of 200 patients with rheumatoid arthritis repeated after an interval of one year. Scand J Rheumatol 1987; 16: 395401.
  • 33
    Straub RH, Konecna L, Hrach S, Rothe G, Kreutz M, Schölmerich J, et al. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulfate are negatively correlated with serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), and DHEA inhibits IL-6 secretion from mononuclear cells in man in vitro: possible link between endocrinosenescence and immunosenescence. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998; 83: 20127.
  • 34
    Ligthart GJ, Corberand JX, Fournier C, Galanaud P, Hijmans W, Kennes B, et al. Admission criteria for immunogerontological studies in man: the SENIEUR protocol. Mech Ageing Dev 1984; 28: 4755.
  • 35
    Tsigos C, Papanicolaou DA, Defensor R, Mitsiadis CS, Kyrou I, Chrousos GP. Dose effects of recombinant human interleukin-6 on pituitary hormone secretion and energy expenditure. Neuroendocrinology 1997; 66: 5462.
  • 36
    Anderson DC, Yen SS. Effects of estrogens on adrenal 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in ovariectomized women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1976; 43: 56170.
  • 37
    Barone RM, Shamonki IM, Siiteri PK, Judd HL. Inhibition of peripheral aromatization of androstenedione to estrone in postmenopausal women with breast cancer using delta 1-testololactone. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1979; 49: 6726.
  • 38
    Nestler JE, McClanahan MA, Clore JN, Blackard WG. Insulin inhibits adrenal 17,20-lyase activity in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1992; 74: 3627.
  • 39
    Straub RH, Vogl D, Gross V, Lang B, Schölmerich J, Andus T. Association of humoral markers of inflammation and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate or cortisol serum levels in patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Gastroenterol 1998; 93: 2197202.
    Direct Link:
  • 40
    Masi AT, Chrousos GP. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-glucocorticoid axis function in rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 1996; 23: 57781.
  • 41
    Masi AT, Chrousos GP, Bornstein SR. Enigmas of adrenal androgen and glucocorticoid dissociation in premenopausal onset rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 1999; 26: 24750.
  • 42
    Bijlsma JW, Cutolo M, Masi AT, Chikanza IC. The neuroendocrine immune basis of rheumatic diseases. Immunol Today 1999; 20: 298301.
  • 43
    Jääattelä M, Ilvesmaki V, Voutilainen R, Stenman UH, Saksela E. Tumor necrosis factor as a potent inhibitor of adrenocorticotropin-induced cortisol production and steroidogenic P450 enzyme gene expression in cultured human fetal adrenal cells. Endocrinology 1991; 128: 6239.
  • 44
    Päth G, Bornstein SR, Späth-Schwalbe E, Scherbaum WA. Direct effects of interleukin-6 on human adrenal cells. Endocr Res 1996; 22: 86773.
  • 45
    Barney M, Call GB, McIlmoil CJ, Husein OF, Adams A, Balls AG, et al. Stimulation by interleukin-6 and inhibition by tumor necrosis factor of cortisol release from bovine adrenal zona fasciculata cells through their receptors. Endocrine 2000; 13: 36977.
  • 46
    Gonzalez-Hernandez JA, Bornstein SR, Ehrhart-Bornstein M, Gschwend JE, Gwosdow A, Jirikowski G, et al. IL-1 is expressed in human adrenal gland in vivo: possible role in a local immune-adrenal axis. Clin Exp Immunol 1995; 99: 13741.
  • 47
    Gonzalez-Hernandez JA, Ehrhart-Bornstein M, Spath-Schwalbe E, Scherbaum WA, Bornstein SR. Human adrenal cells express tumor necrosis factor-alpha messenger ribonucleic acid: evidence for paracrine control of adrenal function. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1996; 81: 80713.
  • 48
    Päth G, Bornstein SR, Ehrhart-Bornstein M, Scherbaum WA. Interleukin-6 and the interleukin-6 receptor in the human adrenal gland: expression and effects on steroidogenesis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997; 82: 23439.