• 1
    Harris WH. The problem is osteolysis. Clin Orthop 1995; 199: 4653.
  • 2
    Callaghan JJ, Forest EE, Olejniczak JP, Goetz DD, Johnston RC. Charnley total hip arthroplasty in patients less than fifty years old: a twenty to twenty-five-year follow-up. J Bone Joint Surg 1998; 80A: 70414.
  • 3
    Fender D, Harper WM, Gregg PJ. Outcome of Charnley total hip replacement across a single health region in England: the results at five years from a regional hip register. J Bone Joint Surg 1999; 81: 57781.
  • 4
    Kim YH, Kim JS, Cho SH. Primary total hip arthroplasty with a cementless porous-coated anatomic total hip prosthesis: 10- to 12-year results of prospective and consecutive series. J Arthroplasty 1999; 14: 53848.
  • 5
    Jacobs JJ, Shanbhag A, Glant TT, Black J, Galante JO. Wear debris in total joint replacement. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 1994; 2: 21220.
  • 6
    Goldring SR, Clark CR, Wright TM. The problem in total joint arthroplasty: aseptic loosening. J Bone Joint Surg 1993; 75: 799801.
  • 7
    Jasty M, Goetz DD, Bragdon CR, Lee KR, Hanson AE, Elder JR, et al. Wear of polyethylene acetabular components in total hip arthroplasty: an analysis of one hundred and twenty-eight components retrieved at autopsy or revision operations. J Bone Joint Surg 1997; 79A: 34958.
  • 8
    Lee S-H, Brennan FR, Jacobs JJ, Urban RM, Ragasa DR, Glant TT. Human monocyte/macrophage response to cobalt-chromium corrosion products and titanium particles in patients with total joint replacements. J Orthop Res 1997; 15: 4049.
  • 9
    Shanbhag AS, Jacobs JJ, Glant TT, Gilbert JL, Black J, Galante JO. Composition and morphology of wear debris in failed uncemented total hip replacement. J Bone Joint Surg 1994; 76B: 6067.
  • 10
    Jiranek WA, Machado M, Jasty M, Jevsevar D, Wolfe HJ, Goldring SR, et al. Production of cytokines around loosened cemented acetabular components: analysis with immunohistochemical techniques and in situ hybridization. J Bone Joint Surg 1993; 75A: 86379.
  • 11
    Al Saffar N, Revell PA. Interleukin-1 production by activated macrophages surrounding loosened orthopaedic implants: a potential role in osteolysis. Br J Rheumatol 1994; 33: 30916.
  • 12
    Chiba J, Rubash HE, Kim KJ, Iwaki Y. The characterization of cytokines in the interface tissue obtained from failed cementless total hip arthroplasty with and without femoral osteolysis. Clin Orthop 1994; 300: 30412.
  • 13
    Shigeyama Y, Pap T, Kunzler P, Simmen BR, Gay RE, Gay S. Expression of osteoclast differentiation factor in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2000; 43: 252330.
  • 14
    Schwarz EM, O'Keefe RJ. Breakthrough in bone: the molecular mechanism of osteoclast/osteoblast coupling revealed. Curr Opin Orthop 2000; 11: 32935.
  • 15
    de Vries JE. Immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory properties of interleukin 10. Ann Med 1995; 27: 53741.
  • 16
    Leon LR, Kozak W, Kluger MJ. Role of IL-10 in inflammation: studies using cytokine knockout mice. Ann NY Acad Sci 1998; 856: 6975.
  • 17
    Pollice P, Hsu J, Hicks DG, Bukata S, Rosier RN, Reynolds PR, et al. IL-10 inhibits cytokine synthesis in monocytes stimulated by titanium particles: evidence of an anti-inflammatory regulatory pathway. J Orthop Res 1999; 16: 607704.
  • 18
    Xu LX, Kukita T, Kukita A, Otsuka T, Niho Y, Iijima T. Interleukin-10 selectively inhibits osteoclastogenesis by inhibiting differentiation of osteoclast progenitors into preosteoclast-like cells in rat bone marrow culture system. J Cell Physiol 1995; 165: 6249.
  • 19
    Nabae M, Inoue K, Ushiyama T, Hukuda S. Gene expressions of antiinflammatory mediators in THR retrieved interfascial membranes. Acta Orthop Scand 1999; 70: 14954.
  • 20
    Huizinga TW, Keijsers V, Yanni G, Hall M, Ramage W, Lanchbury J, et al. Are differences in interleukin 10 production associated with joint damage? Rheumatology 2000; 39: 11808.
  • 21
    Moore KW, Vieira P, Fiorentino DF, Trounstine ML, Khan TA, Mosmann TR. Homology of cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (IL-10) to the Epstein-Barr virus gene BCRF1. Science 1990; 248: 12304.
  • 22
    Hsu DH, de Waal Malefyt R, Fiorentino DF, Dang MN, Vieira P, de Vries J, et al. Expression of interleukin-10 activity by Epstein-Barr virus protein BCRF1. Science 1990; 250: 8302.
  • 23
    Feldmann M, Brennan FM, Maini RN. Rheumatoid arthritis. Cell 1996; 85: 30710.
  • 24
    Firestein GS. Cytokine networks in rheumatoid arthritis: implications for therapy. Agents Actions 1995; 47: 3751.
  • 25
    Gay S, Muller-Ladner U, Hummel KM, Pap T, Gay RE. Anticytokines. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1999; 7: 3179.
  • 26
    Muller-Ladner U, Evans CH, Franklin BN, Roberts CR, Gay RE, Robbins PD, et al. Gene transfer of cytokine inhibitors into human synovial fibroblasts in the SCID mouse model. Arthritis Rheum 1999; 42: 4907.
  • 27
    Ma Y, Thornton S, Duwel LE, Boivin GP, Giannini EH, Leiden JM, et al. Inhibition of collagen-induced arthritis in mice by viral IL-10 gene transfer. J Immunol 1998; 161: 151624.
  • 28
    Whalen JD, Lechman EL, Carlos CA, Weiss K, Kovesdi I, Glorioso JC, et al. Adenoviral transfer of the viral IL-10 gene periarticularly to mouse paws suppresses development of collagen-induced arthritis in both injected and uninjected paws. J Immunol 1999; 162: 362532.
  • 29
    Schwarz EM, Benz EB, Lu AP, Goater JJ, Mollano AV, Rosier RN, et al. A quantitiative small animal surrogate to evaluate drug efficacy in preventing wear debris-induced osteolysis. J Orthop Res 2000; 18: 84955.
  • 30
    Blaine TA, Rosier RN, Looney RJ, Reynolds PR, Reynolds SD, Puzas JE, et al. Titanium particles increase TNF-alpha and IL-6 protein and mRNA levels in human peripheral blood monocytes. J Bone Joint Surg 1996; 78A: 118192.
  • 31
    Goater J, Muller R, Kollias G, Firestein GS, Sanz I, O'Keefe RJ, et al. Empirical advantages of adeno associated viral vectors for in vivo gene therapy for arthritis. J Rheumatol 2000; 27: 9839.
  • 32
    Cox GW, Mathieson BJ, Gandino L, Blasi W, Radzioch D, Varesio L. Heterogeneity of hematopoietic cells immortalized by v-myc/v-raf recombinant retrovirus infection of bone marrow or fetal liver. J Natl Cancer Inst 1989; 81: 14926.
  • 33
    Li P, Sanz I, O'Keefe RJ, Schwar EM. NF-kappa B regulates VCAM-1 expression on fibroblast-like synoviocytes. J Immunol 2000; 164: 59907.
  • 34
    Schwarz EM, Krimpenfort P, Berns A, Verma IM. Immunological defects in mice with a targeted disruption in Bcl-3. Genes Dev 1997; 11: 18797.
  • 35
    Verma IM, Somia N. Gene therapy promises, problems and prospects. Nature 1997; 389: 23942.
  • 36
    Childs LM, Goater JJ, O'Keefe RJ, Schwarz EM. Efficacy of Etanercept for wear debris-induced osteolysis. J Bone Miner Res 2001; 16: 33847.
  • 37
    Zhang X, Morham SG, Langenbaach R, Young DA, Xing L, Boyce BF, et al. Evidence for a direct role of cyclo-oxygenase 2 in implant wear debris-induced osteolysis. J Bone Miner Res 2001; 16: 66070.
  • 38
    Schwarz EM, Lu AP, Goater JJ, Benz EB, Kollias G, Rosier RN, et al. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha/nuclear transcription factor-kappaB signaling in periprosthetic osteolysis. J Orthop Res 2000; 18: 47280.
  • 39
    O'Farrell A-M, Liu Y, Moore KW, Mui A-F. IL-10 inhibits macrophage activation and proliferation by distinct signalling mechanisms: evidence for stat3-dependent and -independent pathways. EMBO J 1998; 17: 100618.
  • 40
    Liu Y, de Waal Malefyt R, Briere F, Parham C, Bridon J-M, Banchereau J, et al. The Epstein-Barr virus interleukin-10 (IL-10) homolog is a selective agonist with impaired binding to the IL-10 receptor. J Immunol 1997; 158: 60413.
  • 41
    Josephson K, DiGiacomo R, Indelicato SR, Ayo AH, Nagabhushan TL, Parker MH, et al. Design and analysis of an engineered human interleukin-10 monomer. J Biol Chem 2000; 275: 135527.
  • 42
    Ding Y, Qin L, Kotenko SV, Pestka S, Bromberg JS. A single amino acid determines the immunostimulatory activity of interleukin 10. J Exp Med 2000; 191: 21324.
  • 43
    Moore K, de Waal Malefyt R, Coffman RL, O'Garra A. Interleukin-10 and the interleukin-10 receptor. Annu Rev Immunol 2001; 19: 683765.
  • 44
    Riley JK, Takeda K, Akira S, Schreiber RD. Interleukin-10 receptor signaling through the JAK-STAT pathway: requirement for two distinct receptor-derived signals for anti-inflammatory action. J Biol Chem 1999; 274: 1651321.
  • 45
    De Waal Malefyt R, Abrams J, Bennett B, Figdor CG, de Vries JE. Interleukin 10 (IL-10) inhibits cytokine synthesis by human monocytes: an autoregulatory role of IL-10 produced by monocytes. J Exp Med 1991; 174: 120920.
  • 46
    Ajuebor MN, Das AM, Virag L, Flower RJ, Szabo C, Perretti M. Role of resident peritoneal macrophages and mast cells in chemokine production and neutrophil migration in acute inflammation: evidence for an inhibitory loop involving endogenous IL-10. J Immunol 1999; 162: 168591.
  • 47
    Niiro H, Otsuka T, Tanabe T, Hara S, Kuga S, Nemoto Y, et al. Inhibition by interleukin-10 of inducible cyclooxygenase expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated monocytes: its underlying mechanism in comparison with interleukin-4. Blood 1995; 85: 373645.
  • 48
    Shanley TP, Vasi N, Denenberg A. Regulation of chemokine expression by IL-10 in lung inflammation. Cytokine 2000; 12: 105464.
  • 49
    Brown CY, Lagnado CA, Vadas MA, Goodall GJ. Differential regulation of the stability of cytokine mRNAs in lipopolysaccharide-activated blood monocytes in response to interleukin-10. J Biol Chem 1996; 271: 2010812.
  • 50
    Bogdan C, Vodovotz Y, Nathan C. Macrophage deactivation by interleukin 10. J Exp Med 1991; 174: 154955.
  • 51
    Dai Y, Schwarz EM, Gu D, Zhang WW, Sarvetnick N, Verma IM. Cellular and humoral immune responses to adenoviral vectors containing factor IX gene: tolerization of factor IX and vector antigens allows for long-term expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1995; 92: 14015.
  • 52
    Evans CH, Ghivizzani SC, Oligino TA, Robbins PD. Future of adenoviruses in the gene therapy of arthritis. Arthritis Res 2001; 3: 1426.
  • 53
    Childs LM, Goater JJ, O'Keefe RJ, Schwarz EM. Effect of anti-tumor necrosis factor-α gene therapy on wear debris-induced osteolysis. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2001; 83-A: 178997.
  • 54
    Bonadio J, Smiley E, Patil P, Goldstein S. Localized, direct plasmid gene delivery in vivo: prolonged therapy results in reproducible tissue regeneration. Nat Med 1999; 5: 7539.
  • 55
    Schwarz EM. The adeno-associated virus vector for orthopaedic gene therapy. Clin Orthop 2000; 379S: S31S39.
  • 56
    Minter RM, Rectenwald JE, Fukuzuka K, Tannahill CL, La Face D, Tsai V, et al. TNF-alpha receptor signaling and IL-10 gene therapy regulate the innate and humoral immune responses to recombinant adenovirus in the lung. J Immunol 2000; 164: 44351.
  • 57
    Drazan KE, Wu L, Bullington D, Shaked A. Viral IL-10 gene therapy inhibits TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta, not IL-6, in the newborn endotoxemic mouse. J Pediatr Surg 1996; 31: 4114.
  • 58
    Gudmundsson G, Bosch A, Davidson BL, Berg DJ, Hunninghake GW. Interleukin-10 modulates the severity of hypersensitivity pneumonitis in mice. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 1998; 19: 8128.
  • 59
    Kim KN, Watanabe S, Ma Y, Thornton S, Giannini EH, Hirsch R. Viral IL-10 and soluble TNF receptor act synergistically to inhibit collagen-induced arthritis following adenovirus-mediated gene transfer. J Immunol 2000; 164: 157681.
  • 60
    Henke PK, DeBrunye LA, Strieter RM, Bromberg JS, Prince M, Kadell AM, et al. Viral IL-10 gene transfer decreases inflammation and cell adhesion molecule expression in a rat model of venous thrombosis. J Immunol 2000; 164: 213141.
  • 61
    Chernoff AE, Granowitz EV, Shapiro L, Vannier E, Lonnemann G, Angel JB, et al. A randomized, controlled trial of IL-10 in humans: inhibition of inflammatory cytokine production and immune responses. J Immunol 1995; 154: 54929.