• 1
    Van-Boxel JA, Paget SA. Predominantly T-cell infiltrate in rheumatoid synovial membranes. N Engl J Med 1975; 293: 51720.
  • 2
    Cush JJ, Lipsky PE. Phenotypic analysis of synovial tissue and peripheral blood lymphocytes isolated from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1988; 31: 12308.
  • 3
    Strober S, Tanay A, Field E, Hoppe RT, Calin A, Engleman EG, et al. Efficacy of total lymphoid irradiation in intractable rheumatoid arthritis: a double-blind, randomized trial. Ann Intern Med 1985; 102: 4419.
  • 4
    Tugwell P, Bombardier C, Gent M, Bennett KJ, Bensen WG, Carette S, et al. Low-dose cyclosporin versus placebo in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Lancet 1990; 335: 10515.
  • 5
    Azuma M, Ito D, Yagita H, Okumura K, Phillips JH, Lanier LL, et al. B7 antigen is a second ligand for CTLA-4 and CD28. Nature 1993; 366: 769.
  • 6
    Balsa A, Dixey J, Sansom DM, Maddison PJ, Hall ND. Differential expression of the costimulatory molecules B7.1 (CD80) and B7.2 (CD86) in rheumatoid synovial tissue. Br J Rheumatol 1996; 35: 337.
  • 7
    Dai Z, Lakkis FG. The role of cytokines, CTLA-4 and costimulation in transplant tolerance and rejection. Curr Opin Immunol 1999; 11: 5048.
  • 8
    Datta SK, Kalled SL. CD40–CD40 ligand interaction in autoimmune disease. Arthritis Rheum 1997; 40: 173545.
  • 9
    Gimmi CD, Freeman GJ, Gribben JG, Gray G, Nadler LM. Human T cell clonal anergy is induced by antigen presentation in the absence of B7 costimulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1993; 90: 658690.
  • 10
    Greene JL, Leytze GM, Emswiler J, Peach R, Bajorath J, Cosand W, et al. Covalent dimerization of CD28/CTLA-4 and oligomerization of CD80/CD86 regulates T cell costimulatory interactions. J Biol Chem 1996; 271: 2676271.
  • 11
    Jenkins MK, Taylor S, Norton SD, Urdahl KB. CD28 delivers a costimulatory signal involved in antigen-specific IL-2 production by human T cells. J Immunol 1991; 147: 24616.
  • 12
    Linsley PS, Greene JL, Brady W, Bajorath J, Ledbetter JA, Peach R. Human B7-1 (CD80) and B7-2 (CD86) bind with similar avidities but distinct kinetics to CD28 and CTLA-4 receptors. Immunity 1994; 1: 793801.
  • 13
    Pearson TC, Alexander DZ, Winn KJ, Linsley PS, Lowry RP, Larsen CP. Transplantation tolerance induced by CTLA4Ig. Transplantation 1994; 57: 17016.
  • 14
    Shimoyama Y, Nagafuchi H, Suzuki N, Ochi T, Sakane T. Synovium infiltrating T cells induce excessive synovial cell function through CD28/B7 pathway in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 1999; 26: 2094101.
  • 15
    Verwilghen J, Lovis R, De-Boer M, Linsley PS, Haines GK, Koch AE, et al. Expression of functional B7 and CTLA4 on rheumatoid synovial T cells. J Immunol 1994; 153: 137885.
  • 16
    Biancone L, Andres G, Ahn H, DeMartino C, Stamenkovic I. Inhibition of the CD40-CD40 spore ligand pathway prevents murine membranous glomerulonephritis. Kidney Int 1995; 48: 45868.
  • 17
    Blazer BR, Taylor PA, Linsley PS, Valera DA. In vivo blockade of CD28/CTLA4: B7/BB1 interaction with CTLA4Ig reduces lethal murine graft-versus-host disease across the major histocompatibility complex barrier in mice. Blood 1994; 83: 381525.
  • 18
    Garza KM, Chan SM, Suri R, Nguyen LT, Odermatt B, Schoenberger SP, et al. Role of antigen-presenting cells in mediating tolerance and autoimmunity. J Exp Med 2000; 191: 20217.
  • 19
    Israel-Assayag E, Fournier M, Cormier Y. Blockade of T cell costimulation by CTLA4-Ig inhibits lung inflammation in murine hypersensitivity pneumonitis. J Immunol 1999; 163: 67949.
  • 20
    Kalled SL, Cutler AH, Datta SK, Thomas DW. Anti-CD40 ligand antibody treatment of SNF1 mice with established nephritis: preservation of kidney function. J Immunol 1998; 160: 215865.
  • 21
    Lenschow DJ, Ho SC, Sattar H, Rhee L, Gray G, Nabavi N, et al. Differential effects of anti-B7-1 and anti-B7-2 monoclonal antibody treatment on the development of diabetes in the nonobese diabetic mouse. J Exp Med 1995; 181: 114555.
  • 22
    Nishakawa K, Linsley PS, Collins AB, Stamenkovic I, McCluskey RT, Andres G. Effect of CTLA-4 chimeric protein on rat autoimmune anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis. Eur J Immunol 1994; 24: 124954.
  • 23
    Perrin PJ, Scott D, Quigley L, Albert PS, Feder O, Gray GS, et al. Role of B7:CD28/CTLA-4 in the induction of chronic relapsing experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. J Immunol 1995; 154: 148190.
  • 24
    Finck BK, Linsley PS, Wofsy D. Treatment of murine lupus with CTLA4Ig. Science 1994; 265: 12257.
  • 25
    Webb LMC, Walmsley MJ, Feldmann M. Prevention and amelioration of collagen-induced arthritis by blockade of the CD28 co-stimulatory pathway: requirement for both B7-1 and B7-2. Eur J Immunol 1994; 26: 124954.
  • 26
    Abrams JR, Lebwohl MG, Guzzo CA, Jegasothy BV, Goldfarb MT, Goffe BS, et al. CTLA4Ig-mediated blockade of T-cell costimulation in patients with psoriasis vulgaris. J Clin Invest 1999; 103: 124352.
  • 27
    Linsley PS, Brady W, Urnes M, Grosmaire LS, Damle NK, Ledbetter JA. CTLA4Ig is a second receptor for the B-cell activation antigen B7. J Exp Med 1991; 174: 5619.
  • 28
    Arnett FC, Edworthy SM, Bloch DA, McShane DJ, Fries JF, Cooper NS, et al. The American Rheumatism Association 1987 revised criteria for the classification of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1988; 31: 31524.
  • 29
    Hochberg MC, Chang RW, Dwosh I, Lindsey S, Pincus T, Wolfe F. The American College of Rheumatology 1991 revised criteria for the classification of global functional status in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1992; 35: 498502.
  • 30
    Felson DT, Anderson JJ, Boers M, Bombardier C, Furst D, Goldsmith C, et al. American College of Rheumatology preliminary definition of improvement in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1995; 38: 72735.
  • 31
    Felson DT, Anderson JJ, Lange MLM, Wells G, LaValley MP. Should improvement in rheumatoid arthritis clinical trials be defined as fifty percent or seventy percent improvement in core set measures rather than twenty percent? Arthritis Rheum 1998; 41: 156470.
  • 32
    Felson DT, Anderson JJ, Boers M, Bombardier C, Chernoff M, Fried B, et al. The American College of Rheumatology preliminary core set of disease activity measures for rheumatoid arthritis clinical trials. Arthritis Rheum 1993; 36: 72940.
  • 33
    Moreland LW, Baumgartner SW, Schiff M, Tindall EA, Fleischmann RM, Weaver AL, et al. Treatment of active, refractory rheumatoid arthritis with a recombinant human tumor necrosis factor receptor (p75) Fc fusion protein (TNFR:Fc-Enbrel™). N Engl J Med 1997; 337: 1417.
  • 34
    Moreland LW, Schiff MH, Baumgartner SW, Tindall EA, Fleischmann RM, Bulpitt KJ, et al. Etanercept therapy in rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1999; 130: 47886.
  • 35
    Bathon JM, Martin RW, Fleischmann RM, Tesser JR, Schiff MH, Keystone EC, et al. A comparison of etanercept and methotrexate in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis. N Engl J Med 2000; 343: 158693.
  • 36
    Maini RN, Breedveld FC, Kalden JR, Smolen JS, Davis D, Macfarlane JD, et al. Therapeutic efficacy of multiple intravenous infusions of anti–tumor necrosis factor α monoclonal antibody combined with low-dose weekly methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1998; 41: 155263.
  • 37
    Lipsky PE, van der Keijde DM, St Clair EW, Furst DE, Breedveld FC, Kalden JR, et al. Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor Trial in Rheumatoid Arthritis with Concomitant Therapy Study Group. Infliximab and methotrexate in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. N Engl J Med 2000; 343: 1594602.
  • 38
    Bresnihan B, Alvaro-Gracia JM, Cobby M, Doherty M, Domljan Z, Emery P, et al. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with recombinant human interleukin-1 receptor antagonist. Arthritis Rheum 1998; 41: 2196204.
  • 39
    Moreland LW, Sewell KL, Trentham DE, Bucy RP, Sullivan WF, Schrohenloher RE, et al. Interleukin-2 diphtheria fusion protein (DAB486IL-2) in refractory rheumatoid arthritis: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with open-label extension. Arthritis Rheum 1995; 38: 117786.
  • 40
    Moreland LW, Pratt PW, Mayes MD, Postlethwaite A, Weisman MH, Schnitzer T, et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial using chimeric monoclonal anti-CD4 antibody, cM-T412, in rheumatoid arthritis patients receiving concomitant methotrexate. Arthritis Rheum 1995; 38: 15818.
  • 41
    Moreland LW, Pratt PW, Bucy RP, Jackson BS, Feldman JW, Koopman WJ. Treatment of refractory rheumatoid arthritis with a chimeric anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody: long-term followup of CD4+ T cell counts. Arthritis Rheum 1994; 37: 8348.
  • 42
    Van der Lubbe PA, Dijkmans BAC, Markusse HM, Nässander U, Breedveld FC. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of CD4 monoclonal antibody therapy in early rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1995; 38: 1097106.
  • 43
    Yocum DE, Solinger AM, Tesser J, Gluck O, Cornett M, O'Sullivan F, et al. Clinical and immunologic effects of a PRIMATIZED anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody in active rheumatoid arthritis: results of a phase I, single dose, dose escalating trial. J Rheumatol 1998; 25: 125762.
  • 44
    Weinblatt ME, Maddison PJ, Bulpitt KJ, Hazleman BL, Urowitz MB, Sturrock RD, et al. CAMPATH-1H, a humanized monoclonal antibody, in refractory rheumatoid arthritis: an intravenous dose-escalation study. Arthritis Rheum 1995; 38: 158994.
  • 45
    Schnitzer TJ, Yocum DE, Michalska M, Balius R, Snider ME, Hays A, et al. Subcutaneous administration of CAMPATH-1H: clinical and biological outcomes. J Rheumatol 1997; 24: 10316.