• 1
    Adams EM, Yocum D, Bell CL. Hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Am J Med 1983; 75: 3216.
  • 2
    Miller DR, Fiechtner JJ, Carpenter JR, Brown RR, Stroshane RM, Stecher VJ. Plasma hydroxychloroquine concentrations and efficacy in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1987; 30: 56775.
  • 3
    Clark P, Casas E, Tugwell P, Medina C, Gheno C, Tenorio G, et al. Hydroxychloroquine compared with placebo in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Intern Med 1993; 119: 106771.
  • 4
    Mainland D, Sutcliffe MI, for the Cooperating Clinics Committee. Hydroxychloroquine sulfate in RA: a six-month, double-blind trial. Bull Rheum Dis 1962; 13: 28790.
  • 5
    Furst DE, Lindsley HB, Baethge B, Botstein GR, Caldwell J, Dietz F, et al. Dose-loading with hydroxychloroquine improves the rate of response in early, active rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized, double-blind, six-week trial with eighteen-week extension. Arthritis Rheum 1999; 42: 35765.
  • 6
    Laaksonen AL, Koskiahde V, Juva K. Dosage of antimalarial drugs for children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus: a clinical study with determination of serum concentrations of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine. Scand J Rheumatol 1974; 3: 1038.
  • 7
    Tett SE, Day RO, Cutler DJ. Concentration-effect relationship of hydroxychloroquine in rheumatoid arthritis: a cross-sectional study. J Rheumatol 1993; 20: 18749.
  • 8
    Bernstein HN. Ocular safety of hydroxychloroquine. Ann Ophthalmol 1991; 23: 2926.
  • 9
    Easterbrook M. The ocular safety of hydroxychloroquine. Semin Arthritis Rheum 1993; 23 Suppl 1: 627.
  • 10
    Arnett FC, Edworthy SM, Bloch DA, McShane DJ, Fries JF, Cooper NS, et al. The American Rheumatism Association 1987 revised criteria for the classification of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1988; 31: 31524.
  • 11
    KlippelJH, WeyandCM, WortmannR, editors. Primer on the rheumatic diseases. 10th ed. Atlanta: Arthritis Foundation; 1993.
  • 12
    Tett SE, Cutler DJ, Day RO, Brown KF. A dose-ranging study of the pharmacokinetics of hydroxychloroquine following intravenous administration to healthy volunteers. Br J Clin Pharmacol 1988; 26: 30313.
  • 13
    Miller DR, Khalil SW, Nygard GA. Steady-state pharmacokinetics of hydroxychloroquine in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Ann Pharmacother 1991; 25: 13025.
  • 14
    Tett SE, Cutler DJ, Brown KF. High-performance liquid chromatographic assay for hydroxychloroquine and metabolites in blood and plasma, using a stationary phase of poly(styrene divinylbenzene) and a mobile phase at pH 11, with fluorimetric detection. J Chromatogr 1985; 344: 2418.
  • 15
    Paulus HE, Egger MJ, Ward JR, Williams H. Analysis of improvement in individual rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, based on the findings in patients treated with placebo. Arthritis Rheum 1990; 33: 47784.
  • 16
    Bienfang D, Coblyn JS, Liang MH, Corzillius M. Hydroxychloroquine retinopathy despite regular ophthalmologic evaluation: a consecutive series. J Rheumatol 2000; 27: 27036.
  • 17
    Easterbrook M. Detection and prevention of maculopathy associated with antimalarial agents. Int Ophthalmol Clin 1999; 39: 4957.
  • 18
    Maturi RK, Folk JC, Nichols B, Oetting TT, Kardon RH. Hydroxychloroquine retinopathy. Arch Ophthalmol 1999; 117: 12623.
  • 19
    MacKenzie AH. Pharmacologic actions of 4-aminoquinoline compounds. Am J Med 1983; 75: 510.
  • 20
    Mills PV, Beck M, Power BJ. Assessment of the retinal toxicity of hydroxychloroquine. Trans Ophthalmol Soc U K 1981; 101: 10913.
  • 21
    Furst DE, Caldwell J, Klugman M, Enthoven D, Rittweger K, Scheer R, et al. Serum concentration and dose-response relationships for carprofen in rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1988; 44: 18694.
  • 22
    Day RO, Furst DE, Dromgoole SH, Kamm B, Roe R, Paulus HE. Relationship of serum naproxen concentration to efficacy in rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Pharmacol Ther 1982; 31: 73370.
  • 23
    Kloppenburg M, Mattie H, Donwes N, Kijkmans BAC, Breedveld FC. Minocycline in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: relationship of serum concentrations in efficacy. J Rheumatol 1995; 22: 6116.
  • 24
    Furst DE, Kroehnke R, Burmeister L, Kohler J, Cargill I. Increasing methotrexate effect with increasing dose in the treatment of resistant rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 1989; 16: 31320.
  • 25
    Champion GD, Cairns DR, Bieri D, Adena MA, Browne CD, Cohen MR, et al. Dose response studies and long term evaluation of auranofin in rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 1988; 15: 2834.
  • 26
    Furst DE, Levine S, Srinivasan R, Metzger AL, Bangert R, Paulus HE. A double-blind trial of high-dose versus conventional dosages of gold salts for rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1977; 20: 147380.
  • 27
    Lafforgue P, Monjanel-Mouterde S, Durand A, Catalin J, Acquaviva PC. Lack of correlation between pharmacokinetics and efficacy in low dose methotrexate in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 1995; 22: 8449.
  • 28
    Bannwarth B, Pehourcq F, Lequen L. Pharmacokinetics of methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis: therapeutic implications. Therapie 1997; 52: 12932.
  • 29
    Gottleib NL. Gold compounds in rheumatoid arthritis: clinical-pharmacokinetic correlates. J Rheumatol 1979; 5: 515.
  • 30
    Husain Z, Runge LA. Treatment complications of RA with gold, HCQ, D-penicillamine and levamisole. J Rheumatol 1980; 7: 82530.
  • 31
    McKenzie AH, Scherbel AL. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine in rheumatological therapy. Clin Rheum Dis 1980; 6: 54566.
  • 32
    Dubois EL. Antimalarials in the management of discoid and systemic lupus erythematosus. Semin Arthritis Rheum 1978; 8: 3351.