• 1
    Symmons DP, Jones MA, Scott DL, Prior P. Longterm mortality outcome in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: early presenters continue to do well. J Rheumatol 1998; 25: 10727.
  • 2
    Wallberg-Jonsson S, Ohman ML, Dahlqvist SR. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with seropositive rheumatoid arthritis in Northern Sweden. J Rheumatol 1997; 24: 44551.
  • 3
    Mutru O, Laakso M, Isomaki H, Koota K. Ten year mortality and causes of death in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. BMJ 1985; 290: 17979.
  • 4
    Isomaki HA, Mutru O, Koota K. Death rate and causes of death in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Scand J Rheumatol 1975; 4: 2058.
  • 5
    Erhardt CC, Mumford PA, Venables PJ, Maini RN. Factors predicting a poor life prognosis in rheumatoid arthritis: an eight year prospective study. Ann Rheum Dis 1989; 48: 713.
  • 6
    Park YB, Lee SK, Lee WK, Suh CH, Lee CW, Lee CH, et al. Lipid profiles in untreated patients with rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 1999; 26: 17014.
  • 7
    Park Y-B, Choi HK, Kim M-Y, Lee W-K, Song J, Kim D-K, et al. Effects of antirheumatic therapy on serum lipid levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a prospective study. Am J Med 2002. In press.
  • 8
    Li R, Cai J, Tegeler C, Sorlie P, Metcalf PA, Heiss G. Reproducibility of extracranial carotid atherosclerotic lesions assessed by B-mode ultrasound: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Ultrasound Med Biol 1996; 22: 7919.
  • 9
    Salonen JT, Salonen R. Ultrasound B-mode imaging in observational studies of atherosclerotic progression. Circulation 1993; 87: II5665.
  • 10
    Pignoli P, Tremoli E, Poli A, Oreste P, Paoletti R. Intimal plus medial thickness of the arterial wall: a direct measurement with ultrasound imaging. Circulation 1986; 74: 1399406.
  • 11
    Bots ML, Hofman A, De Jong PT, Grobbee DE. Common carotid intima-media thickness as an indicator of atherosclerosis at other sites of the carotid artery.The Rotterdam Study. Ann Epidemiol 1996; 6: 14753.
  • 12
    Heiss G, Sharrett AR, Barnes R, Chambless LE, Szklo M, Alzola C. Carotid atherosclerosis measured by B-mode ultrasound in populations: associations with cardiovascular risk factors in the ARIC study. Am J Epidemiol 1991; 134: 2506.
  • 13
    Pujia A, Gnasso A, Irace C, Colonna A, Mattioli PL. Common carotid arterial wall thickness in NIDDM subjects. Diabetes Care 1994; 17: 13306.
  • 14
    Wendelhag I, Wiklund O, Wikstrand J. On quantifying plaque size and intima-media thickness in carotid and femoral arteries: comments on results from a prospective ultrasound study in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 1996; 16: 84350.
  • 15
    Arnett DK, Tyroler HA, Burke G, Hutchinson R, Howard G, Heiss G, ARIC Investigators. Hypertension and subclinical carotid artery atherosclerosis in blacks and whites: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Arch Intern Med 1996; 156: 19839.
  • 16
    Manzi S, Selzer F, Sutton-Tyrrell K, Fitzgerald SG, Rairie JE, Tracy RP, et al. Prevalence and risk factors of carotid plaque in women with systemic lupus erythematosus. Arthritis Rheum 1999; 42: 5160.
  • 17
    Arnett FC, Edworthy SM, Bloch DA, McShane DJ, Fries JF, Cooper NS, et al. The American Rheumatism Association 1987 revised criteria for the classification of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1988; 31: 31524.
  • 18
    Sharp JT, Young DY, Bluhm GB, Brook A, Brower AC, Corbett M, et al. How many joints in the hands and wrists should be included in a score of radiologic abnormalities used to assess rheumatoid arthritis? Arthritis Rheum 1985; 28: 132635.
  • 19
    Friedewald WT, Levy RI, Fredrickson DS. Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin Chem 1972; 18: 499502.
  • 20
    Matthews JN, Altman DG, Campbell MJ, Royston P. Analysis of serial measurements in medical research. BMJ 1990; 300: 2305.
  • 21
    Yamasaki Y, Kawamori R, Matsushima H, Nishizawa H, Kodama M, Kajimoto Y, et al. Atherosclerosis in carotid artery of young IDDM patients monitored by ultrasound high-resolution B-mode imaging. Diabetes 1994; 43: 6349.
  • 22
    Handa N, Matsumoto M, Maeda H, Hougaku H, Kamada T. Ischemic stroke events and carotid atherosclerosis: Results of the Osaka Follow-up Study for Ultrasonographic Assessment of Carotid Atherosclerosis (the OSACA Study). Stroke 1995; 26: 17816.
  • 23
    Takami R, Takeda N, Hayashi M, Sasaki A, Kawachi S, Yoshino K, et al. Body fatness and fat distribution as predictors of metabolic abnormalities and early carotid atherosclerosis. Diabetes Care 2001; 24: 124852.
  • 24
    Roubenoff R, Dellaripa P, Nadeau MR, Abad LW, Muldoon BA, Selhub J, et al. Abnormal homocysteine metabolism in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1997; 40: 71822.
  • 25
    McEntegart A, Capell HA, Creran D, Rumley A, Woodward M, Lowe GDO. Cardiovascular risk factors, including thrombotic variables, in a population with rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2001; 40: 6404.
  • 26
    Pasceri V, Yeh ET. A tale of two diseases: atherosclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Circulation 1999; 100: 21246.
  • 27
    Malinow MR, Nieto FJ, Szklo M, Chambless LE, Bond G. Carotid artery intimal-medial wall thickening and plasma homocysteine in asymptomatic adults: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Circulation 1993; 87: 110713.
  • 28
    Dobs AS, Nieto FJ, Szklo M, Barnes R, Sharrett AR, Ko WJ. Risk factors for popliteal and carotid wall thicknesses in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Am J Epidemiol 1999; 150: 105567.
  • 29
    Marchesi E, Baiardini R, Centeleghe P, Covini D, Firattoni A, Muggia C, et al. Structural changes in the heart and carotid arteries in hypertensive patients associated with cardiovascular risk factors. J Cardiovasc Risk 1997; 4: 2839.
  • 30
    Korea National Statistical Office. Annual report on the cause of death statistics on 2000. Daejeon (Korea): Moonjeon press; 2001. p. 23.
  • 31
    Goodson NJ, Wiles NJ, Lunt M, Dunn G, Barrett EM, Scott DGI, et al. Increased mortality in seropositive patients during the early years of inflammatory polyarthritis [abstract]. Rheumatology (Oxford) 2001; 40 Suppl: 202.
  • 32
    Liuzzo G, Goronzy JJ, Yang H, Kopecky SL, Holmes DR, Frye RL, et al. Monoclonal T-cell proliferation and plaque instability in acute coronary syndromes. Circulation 2000; 101: 28838.
  • 33
    Pincus T, Summey JA, Soraci SA Jr, Wallston KA, Hummon NP. Assessment of patient satisfaction in activities of daily living using a modified Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire. Arthritis Rheum 1983; 26: 134653.