• 1
    Schluter D, Deckert M. The divergent role of tumor necrosis factor receptors in infectious diseases. Microbes Infect 2000; 2: 12851292.
  • 2
    Physicians' Desk Reference. 56th ed. Montvale (NJ): Medical Economics; 2002. p. 11781182.
  • 3
    Physicians' Desk Reference. 56th ed. Montvale (NJ): Medical Economics; 2002. p. 17521755.
  • 4
    Smith JG, Magee DM, Williams DM, Graybill JR. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha plays a role in host defense against Histoplasma capsulatum. J Infect Dis 1990; 162: 13491353.
  • 5
    Wu-Hsieh BA, Lee G-S, Franco M, Hofman FM. Early activation of splenic macrophages by tumor necrosis factor alpha is important in determining the outcome of experimental histoplasmosis in mice. Infect Immun 1992; 60: 42304238.
  • 6
    Keenan GF, Schaible TF, Boscia JA. Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis associated with infliximab therapy [reply]. N Engl J Med 2001; 334: 1100.
  • 7
    Nakelchik M, Mangino JE. Reactivation of histoplasmosis after treatment with infliximab [letter]. Am J Med 2002; 112: 78.
  • 8
    Zhang Z, Correa H, Begue RE. Tuberculosis and treatment with infliximab [letter]. N Engl J Med 2002; 346: 624.
  • 9
    Edwards LB, Acquaviva FA, Livesay VT. Further observations on histoplasmin sensitivity in the United States. Am J Epidemiol 1973; 98: 315325.
  • 10
    Deepe GS, Bullock WE. Immunological aspects of fungal pathogenesis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 1990; 9: 567579.
  • 11
    Deepe GS Jr. Histoplasma capsulatum. In: MandellGL, BennettJE, DolinR, editors. Principles and practice of infectious diseases. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone; 2000. p. 27182733.
  • 12
    Allendorfer R, Brunner GD, Deepe GS Jr. Complex requirements for nascent and memory immunity in pulmonary histoplasmosis. J Immunol 1999; 162: 73897396.
  • 13
    Zhou P, Miller G, Seder RA. Factors involved in regulating primary and secondary immunity to infection with Histoplasma capsulatum: TNF-alpha plays a critical role in maintaining secondary immunity in the absence of IFN-γ. J Immunol 1998; 160: 13591368.
  • 14
    Deepe GS Jr, Gibbons R, Woodward E. Neutralization of endogenous granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor subverts the protective immune response to Histoplasma capsulatum. J Immunol 1999; 163: 49854993.
  • 15
    Scallon BJ, Moore MA, Trinh H, Knight DM, Ghrayeb J. Chimeric anti-TNF-α monoclonal antibody cA2 binds recombinant transmembrane TNF-α and activates immune effector functions. Cytokine 1995; 7: 251259.
  • 16
    Lugering A, Schmidt M, Lugering N, Pauels H-G, Domschke W, Kucharzik T. Infliximab induces apoptosis in monocytes from patients with chronic active Crohn's disease by using a caspase-dependent pathway. Gastroenterology 2001; 121: 11451157.
  • 17
    Witty LA, Steiner F, Curfman M, Webb D, Wheat LJ. Disseminated histoplasmosis in patients receiving low-dose methotrexate therapy for psoriasis. Arch Dermatol 1992; 128: 9193.
  • 18
    Roy V, Hammerschmidt DE. Disseminated histoplasmosis following prolonged low-dose methotrexate therapy [letter]. Am J Hematol 2000; 63: 5960.
  • 19
    LeMense GP, Sahn SA. Opportunistic infection during treatment with low dose methotrexate. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1994; 150: 258260.
  • 20
    Keane J, Gershon S, Wise RP, Mirabile-Levens E, Kasznica J, Schwieterman WD, et al. Tuberculosis associated with infliximab, a tumor necrosis factor alpha-neutralizing agent. N Engl J Med 2001; 345: 10981104.
  • 21
    Keane J, Gershon SK, Braun MM. Tuberculosis and treatment with infliximab [reply]. N Engl J Med 2002; 346: 625626.
  • 22
    CDC Disease Information. Histoplasmosis page. Accessed July 23, 2002. URL: