SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • 1
    Bowyer S, Roettcher P, and the members of the Pediatric Rheumatology Database Research Group. Pediatric rheumatology clinic populations in the United States: results of a 3 year survey. J Rheumatol 1996; 23: 196874.
  • 2
    Cassidy JT, Nelso AM. The frequency of juvenile arthritis. J Rheumatol 1988; 15: 5356.
  • 3
    Gerwanter HT, Roghmann KJ, Baum J. The prevalence of juvenile arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1983; 26: 599603.
  • 4
    Towner SR, Michet CJ Jr, O'Fallon WM, Nelson AM. The epidemiology of juvenile arthritis in Rochester, Minnesota 1960–1979. Arthritis Rheum 1983; 26: 120813.
  • 5
    Brewer EJ, Bass J, Baum J, Cassidy JT, Fink C, Jacobs J, et al. Current proposed revision of JRA criteria. JRA criteria subcommittee of the diagnostic and therapeutic criteria committee of the American Rheumatism section of the Arthritis Foundation. Arthritis Rheum 1977; 20: 1959.
  • 6
    Petty RE, Southwood TR, Baum J, Bhettay E, Glass DN, Manners P, et al. Revision of the proposed classification criteria for juvenile idiopathic arthritis: Durban 1997. J Rheumatol 1998; 25: 19914.
  • 7
    Wood PHN. Special meeting on the nomenclature and classification of arthritis in children. In: MuntheE, editor. The care of rheumatic children. Basel: EULAR; 1977. p. 4750.
  • 8
    Cassidy JT. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. In: KelleyWN, HarrisED, RuddyS, SledgeCB, editors. Textbook of rheumatology, 2nd edition. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 1985. p. 1247.
  • 9
    Petty RE, Cassidy JT. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. In: CassidyJT, PettyRE, editors. Textbook of pediatric rheumatology, 4th edition. Philadelphia: WB Saunders; 2001. p. 2401.
  • 10
    Hagglund KJ, Schopp LM, Alberts KR, Cassidy JT, Frank RG. Predicting pain among children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Care Res 1995; 8: 3642.
  • 11
    Lovell DJ, Walco GW. Pain associated with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Pediatr Clin North Am 1989; 36: 101527.
  • 12
    Konkol L, Lineberry J, Gottlieb J, Shelby PE, Miller JJ III, Lorig K. Impact of juvenile arthritis on families: and educational assessment. Arthritis Care Res 1989; 2: 408.
  • 13
    Laaksonen AL, Laine V. A comparative study of joint pain in adult and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 1961; 20: 386.
  • 14
    Scott PJ, Ansell BM, Huskisson EC. Measurement of pain in juvenile chronic polyarthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 1977; 36: 1867.
  • 15
    Beyer JE, Denyes MJ, Villarruel AM. The creation, validation, and continuing development of the Oucher: a measure of pain intensity in children. J Pediatr Nurs 1992; 7: 33546.
  • 16
    Beyer JE, Villaruel AM, Denyes MJ. The Oucher: the new user's manual and technical report. Denver: Health Sciences Center, School of Nursing, University of Colorado; 1993.
  • 17
    Savedra M, Tesler M, Holzemer WL, Wilkie D, Ward JA. Pain location: validity and reliability of body outline markings by hospitalized children and adolescents. Res Nurs Health 1989; 12: 30714.
  • 18
    Varni JW, Thompson KL, Hanson V. The Varni/Thompson Pediatric Pain Questionnaire. I. Chronic musculoskeletal pain in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Pain 1987; 28: 2738.
  • 19
    Guidelines for the management of pain in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and juvenile chronic arthritis, 2nd edition. Glenview (IL): American Pain Society; 2002. p. 11930.
  • 20
    Goodman JE, McGrath PJ. The epidemiology of pain in children and adolescents: a review. Pain 1991; 46: 24764.
  • 21
    Abu-Arafeh, I, Russell G. Recurrent limb pain in school. Arch Dis Child 1996; 74: 3369.
  • 22
    McClain BC. Chronic pain in children: current issues in recognition and management. Pain Digest 1996; 6: 717.
  • 23
    Kristjansdottir G. Prevalence of pain combinations and overall pain: a study of headache, stomach pain and back pain among school children. Scand J Soc Med 1997; 25: 5863.
  • 24
    Balague F, Dutoit G, Waldburger M. Low back pain in school-children. Scand J Rehabil Med 1988; 20: 1759.
  • 25
    Mikkelson M, Salminen JJ, Sourander A, Kautiainen H. Contributing factors to the persistence of musculoskeletal pain in preadolecents: a prospective 1-year follow-up study. Pain 1998; 77: 6772.
  • 26
    Fairbank JCT, Pynsent PB, VanPoortvliet JA, Phillips H. Influence of anthropometric factors and joint laxity in the incidence of adolescent back pain. Spine 1984; 9: 4614.
  • 27
    Salimen JJ. The adolescent back: a field survey of 370 Finnish school children. Acta Paediatr Scand 1984; 73 Suppl 315: 1122.
  • 28
    Viikari-Juntura E, Vuori J, Silverstein A, Kalimo R, Kuosma E, Videman T. A life-long prospective study on the role of psychological factors in neck-shoulder and low-back pain. Spine 1991; 16: 105661.
  • 29
    Salminen JJ, Pentti J, Terho P. Low back pain and disability in 14-year-old schoolchildren. Acta Paediatr 1992; 81: 10359.
  • 30
    Olsen TL, Anderson RL, Dearwater SR, Kriska AM, Cauley JA, Aaron DJ, et al. The epidemiology of low-back pain in an adolescent population. Am J Public Health 1992; 82: 6068.
  • 31
    Balague F, Nordin M, Skovron ML, Dutoit G, Yee A, Waldburger M. Non-specific low-back pain among schoolchildren: a field survey with analysis of some associated factors. J Spinal Disord 1994; 7: 3749.
  • 32
    Troussier B, Davoine P, de Gaudemaris R, Fauconnier J, Phelip X. Back pain in school children: a study among 1178 pupils. Scand J Rehab Med 1994; 26: 1436.
  • 33
    Burton AK, Clarke RD, McClune TD, Tillotson KM. The natural history of low back pain in adolescents. Spine 1996; 20: 23238.
  • 34
    Perquin CW, Hazebroek-Kampschreur AAJM, Hunfeld JAM, Bohnen AM, van Suijlekom-Smit LWA, Passchier J, et al: Pain in children and adolescents: a common experience. Pain 2000; 87: 518.
  • 35
    Sherry DD, McGuire T, Mellins E, Salmonson K, Wallace CA, Nepom B. Psychosomatic musculoskeletal pain in childhood: clinical and psychological analyses of 100 children. Pediatrics 1991; 88: 10939.
  • 36
    Mikkelsson M, Sourander A, Piha J, Salminen JJ. Psychiatric symptoms in preadolescents with musculoskeletal pain and fibromyalgia. Pediatrics 1997; 100: 2207.
  • 37
    Egger HL, Costello EJ, Erkanli A, Angold A. Somatic complaints and psychopathology in children and adolescents: stomach aches, musculoskeletal pains, and headaches. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 1999; 38: 85260.
  • 38
    Child AH. Joint hypermobility syndrome: inherited disorder of collagen synthesis. J Rheumatol 1986; 13: 23943.
  • 39
    Griegel-Morris, P, Larson K, Mueller-Klaus K, Oatis CA. Incidence of common postural abnormalities in the cervical, shoulder, and thoracic regions and their association with pain in two age groups of healthy subjects. Phys Ther 1992; 72: 42530.
  • 40
    Flato B, Aasland A, Vandvik IH, Forre O. Outcome and predictive factors in children with chronic idiopathic musculoskeletal pain. Clin Exp Rheumatol 1997; 15: 56977.
  • 41
    McGrath PJ. Annotation: aspects of pain in children and adolescents. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 1995; 36: 71730.
  • 42
    Malleson PN, Al-Matar M, Petty RE. Idiopathic musculoskeletal pain syndromes in children. J Rheumatol 1992; 19: 17869.
  • 43
    Sherry DD, Bohnsack J, Salmonson K, Wallace CA, Mellins E. Painless juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. J Pediatr 1990; 116: 9213.
  • 44
    Gragg RA, Rapoff MA, Danovsky MB, Lindsley CB, Varni JW, Waldron SA, et al. Assessing chronic musculoskeletal pain associated with rheumatic disease: further validation of the Pediatric Pain Questionnaire. J Pediatr Psychol 1996; 21: 23750.
  • 45
    Thompson KL, Varni JW, Hanson V. Comprehensive assessment of pain in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: an empirical model. J Pediatr Psychol 1987; 12: 2415.
  • 46
    Schanberg LE, Lefebvre JC, Keefe FJ, Kredich DW, Gil KW. Pain coping and the pain experience in children with juvenile chronic arthritis. Pain 1997; 73: 1819.
  • 47
    Schanberg LE, Maurin E, Anthony KK, Gil KM. Girls with polyarticular arthritis report more disease symptoms than boys. Arthritis Rheum 2001; 44 Suppl 9: S691.
  • 48
    Abu-Saad HH, Uiterwijk M. Pain in children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: a descriptive study. Pediatr Res 1995; 38: 1947.
  • 49
    Beales JG, Keen JH, Holt PJL. The children's perception of disease and the experience of pain in juvenile chronic arthritis. J Rheumatol 1983; 10: 615.
  • 50
    Benestad B, Vinje O, Veirod B, Vandvik IH. Quantitative and qualitative assessments of pain in children with juvenile chronic arthritis based on the Norwegian version of the Pediatric Pain Questionnaire. Scand J Rheumatol 1996; 25: 2939.
  • 51
    Vandvik IH, Eckblad G. Relationship between pain, disease severity and psychosocial function in patients with juvenile chronic arthritis. Scand J Rheumatol 1990; 19: 295302.
  • 52
    Hogeweg JA, Kuis W, Huygen AC, de Jong-de vos van Steenwijk C, Bernards ATM, Oostendorp RAB, et al. The pain threshold in juvenile chronic arthritis. Br J Rheumatol 1995; 34: 617.
  • 53
    Hogeweg JA, Kuis W, Oostendorp RAB, Helders PJM. General and segmental reduced pain thresholds in juvenile chronic arthritis. Pain 1995; 62: 117.
  • 54
    Thastum M, Zachariae R, Scholer M, Bjerring P, Herrin T. Cold pressor pain: comparing responses of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis patients and their parents. Scand J Rheumatol 1997; 26: 2729.
  • 55
    Truckenbrodt H. Pain in children with juvenile chronic arthritis: consequences for the musculo-skeletal system. Clin Exp Rheumatol 1993; 11 Suppl 9: S5963.
  • 56
    Baildam EM, Holt PJL, Conway SC, Morton MJS. The association between physical function and psychological problems in children with juvenile chronic arthritis. Br J Rheumatol 1995; 34: 4707.
  • 57
    Ross CK, Lavigne JV, Hayford JR, Berry SL, Sinacore JM, Pachman LM. Psychological factors affecting reported pain in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. J Pediatr Psychol 1993; 18: 56173.
  • 58
    Ilowite NT, Walco GW, Pochaczevsky R. Assessment of pain in patients with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: relation between pain intensity and degree of joint inflammation. Ann Rheum Dis 1992; 51: 3436.
  • 59
    Varni JW, Wilcox KT, Hanson V, Brik R. Chronic musculoskeletal pain and functional status in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Pain 1988; 32: 17.
  • 60
    Schanberg LE, Gil KM, Anthony KK, Macharoni LM. Mood and stressful events predict daily fluctuations in disease symptoms in juvenile polyarticular arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2000; 43 Suppl 9: S328.
  • 61
    Schanberg LE, Sandstrom MJ, Starr K, Gil KM, Lefebvre JC, Keefe FJ, et al. The relationship of daily mood and stressful events to symptoms in juvenile rheumatic disease. Arthritis Care Res 2000; 13: 3341.
  • 62
    Schanberg LE, Anthony KK, Gil KM, Lefebvre JC, Kredich DW, Macharoni L. Parental pain history predicts child health status in children with chronic rheumatic disease. Pediatrics [article online] 2001; 108. Accessed July 20, 2002. URL: www.pediatrics.org/cgi/contenet/full/108/3e47.
  • 63
    Schanberg LE, Sandstrom MJ. Causes of pain in children with arthritis. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 1999; 25: 3153.
  • 64
    Beyer JE, Knott CB. Construct validity estimation for the African-American and Hispanic versions of the Oucher scale. J Pediatr Nurs 1998; 13: 2031.
  • 65
    Bieri D, Reeve RA, Champion GD, Addicoat L, Ziegler JB. The Faces Pain Scale for the self-assessment of the severity of pain experienced by children: development, initial validation, and preliminary investigation for ratio scale properties. Pain 1990; 41: 13950.
  • 66
    McGrath PA, Seifert CE, Speechley KN, Booth JC, Stitt L, Gibson MC: A new analogue scale for assessing children's pain: an initial validation study. Pain 1996; 64: 43543.
  • 67
    Wong DL, Baker CM. Pain in children: comparison of assessment scales. Pediatr Nurs 1988; 14: 917.
  • 68
    Dahlquist LM, Gil KM, Armstrong FD, DeLawyer DD, Greene P, Wuori D. Preparing children for medical examinations: the importance of previous medical experience. Health Psychol 1986; 5: 24959.
  • 69
    Jay SM, Ozolins M, Elliott CH, Caldwell S. Assessment of children's distress during painful medical procedures. Health Psychol 1983; 2: 133.
  • 70
    Szyfelbein SK, Osgood PE, Carr DB. The assessment of pain and plasma beta-endorphin immunoactivity in burned children. Pain 1985; 22: 17382.
  • 71
    Jaworski TM, Bradley LA, Heck LW, Roca A, Alarcon GS. Development of an observation method for assessing pain behaviors in children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1995; 38: 114251.
  • 72
    Haber D, Goodman SB. Total hip arthroplasty in juvenile chronic arthritis. J Arthroplasty 1998; 13: 25965.
  • 73
    Lonner JH, Stuchin SA. Synovectomy, radial head excision, and anterior capsular release in stage III inflammatory arthritis of the elbow. J Hand Surg Am 1997; 22: 27985.
  • 74
    Witt JD, McCullough CJ. Anterior soft-tissue release of the hip in juvenile chronic arthritis. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1994; 73: 7703.
  • 75
    Bradley LA, Young LD, Anderson KO, Turner RA, Agudelo CA, McDaniel LK, et al. Effects of psychological therapy on pain behavior of rheumatoid arthritis patients: treatment outcome and six-month follow-up. Arthritis Rheum 1987; 30: 110514.
  • 76
    Bradley LA, Young LD, Anderson KO, Turner RA, Agudelo CA, McDaniel LK, et al. Effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy on rheumatoid arthritis pain behavior: one-year follow-up. In: DubnerR, GebhartGF, BondMR, editors. Pain research and clinical management. Vol 3. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 1998. p. 310.
  • 77
    Keefe FJ, Jacobs M, Edwards C. Persistent pain: cognitive-behavioral approaches to assessment and treatment. Semin Anesthesia 1997; 16: 117.
  • 78
    Parker JC, Frank RG, Beck NC, Smarr KL, Buescher KL, Phillip LR, et al. Pain management in rheumatoid arthritis: a cognitive-behavioral approach. Arthritis Rheum 1988; 31: 593601.
  • 79
    Lavigne JV, Ross CK, Berry SL, Hayford JR, Pachman LM. Evaluation of a psychological treatment package for treating pain in children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Care Res 1992; 5: 1019.
  • 80
    Walco GW, Varni JW, Ilowite NT. Cognitive-behavioral pain management in children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Pediatrics 1992; 89: 10759.
  • 81
    Singsen BH. Physical fitness in children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and other chronic pediatric illnesses. Pediatr Clin North Am 1995; 42: 103550.
  • 82
    Giannini MJ, Protas EJ: Aerobic capacity in juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and healthy children. Arthritis Care Res 1991; 4: 1315.
  • 83
    Klepper SE, Darbee J, Effgen SK, Singsen BH. Physical fitness levels in children with polyarticular juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Care Res 1992; 5: 93100.
  • 84
    Moncur C, Marcus R, Johnson S: Pilot project of aerobic conditioning of subjects with juvenile arthritis. Arthritis Care Res 1990; 3 Suppl: S16.
  • 85
    Klepper SE. Effects of an eight-week physical conditioning program on disease signs and symptoms in children with chronic arthritis. Arthritis Care Res 1999; 12: 5260.
  • 86
    Feldman BM, Wright FV, Bar-Or O, Dent P. Rigorous fitness training and testing for children with polyarticular arthritis: a pilot study. Arthritis Rheum 2000; 43 Suppl 9: S324.
  • 87
    Wright FV, Raman S, Bar-Or O, Feldman BM. Pilot evaluation of the feasibility of fitness training for children with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2000; 43 Suppl 9: S615.
  • 88
    Fisher NM, Venkatraman JT, O'Neil KM. Effects of resistance exercise on children with juvenile arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1999; 42 Suppl 9: S1950.
  • 89
    Field T, Hernadez-Reif M, Seligman S, Krasnegor J, Sunshine W, Rivas-Chacon R, et al. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis: benefits from massage therapy. J Pediatr Psychol 1997; 22: 60717.
  • 90
    Weisman SJ, Bernestein B, Schechter NL. Consequences of inadequate analgesia during painful procedures in children. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 1998; 152: 1479.