• 1
    Elliott MJ, Maini RN, Feldmann M, Long-Fox A, Charles P, Katsikis P, et al. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with chimeric monoclonal antibodies to tumor necrosis factor α. Arthritis Rheum 1993; 36: 168190.
  • 2
    Van Dullemen HM, van Deventer SJ, Hommes DW, Bijl HA, Jansen J, Tytgat GN, et al. Treatment of Crohn's disease with anti-tumor necrosis factor chimeric monoclonal antibody (cA2). Gastroenterology 1995; 109: 12935.
  • 3
    Braun J, Brandt J, Listing J, Zink A, Alten R, Golder W, et al. Treatment of active ankylosing spondylitis with infliximab: a randomised controlled multicentre trial. Lancet 2002; 359: 118793.
  • 4
    Ogilvie AL, Antoni C, Dechant C, Manger B, Kalden JR, Schuler G, et al. Treatment of psoriatic arthritis with antitumour necrosis factor-alpha antibody clears skin lesions of psoriasis resistant to treatment with methotrexate. Br J Dermatol 2001; 144: 5879.
  • 5
    Mastorakos G, Chrousos GP, Weber JS. Recombinant interleukin-6 activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1993; 77: 16904.
  • 6
    Späth-Schwalbe E, Born J, Schrezenmeier H, Bornstein SR, Stromeyer P, Drechsler S, et al. Interleukin-6 stimulates the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical axis in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1994; 79: 12124.
  • 7
    Michie HR, Spriggs DR, Manogue KR, Sherman ML, Revhaug A, O'Dwyer ST, et al. Tumor necrosis factor and endotoxin induce similar metabolic responses in human beings. Surgery 1988; 104: 2806.
  • 8
    Besedovsky HO, del Rey AE, Sorkin E. Immune-neuroendocrine interactions. J Immunol 1985; 135: 7504.
  • 9
    Jäättelä M, Ilvesmaki V, Voutilainen R, Stenman UH, Saksela E. Tumor necrosis factor as a potent inhibitor of adrenocorticotropin-induced cortisol production and steroidogenic P450 enzyme gene expression in cultured human fetal adrenal cells. Endocrinology 1991; 128: 6239.
  • 10
    Xiong Y, Hales DB. The role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the regulation of mouse Leydig cell steroidogenesis. Endocrinology 1993; 132: 243844.
  • 11
    Lin D, Sugawara T, Strauss JF III, Clark BJ, Stocco DM, Saenger P, et al. Role of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein in adrenal and gonadal steroidogenesis. Science 1995; 267: 182831.
  • 12
    Mauduit C, Gasnier F, Rey C, Chauvin MA, Stocco DM, Louisot P, et al. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibits Leydig cell steroidogenesis through a decrease in steroidogenic acute regulatory protein expression. Endocrinology 1998; 139: 28638.
  • 13
    Budnik LT, Jahner D, Mukhopadhyay AK. Inhibitory effects of TNF alpha on mouse tumor Leydig cells: possible role of ceramide in the mechanism of action. Mol Cell Endocrinol 1999; 150: 3946.
  • 14
    Straub RH, Paimela L, Peltomaa R, Schölmerich J, Leirisalo-Repo M. Inadequately low serum levels of steroid hormones in relation to interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor in untreated patients with early rheumatoid arthritis and reactive arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 2002; 46: 65462.
  • 15
    Van den Brink HR, Blankenstein MA, Koppeschaar HP, Bijlsma JW. Influence of disease activity on steroid hormone levels in peripheral blood of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 1993; 11: 64952.
  • 16
    Hall J, Morand EF, Medbak S, Zaman M, Perry L, Goulding NJ, et al. Abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in rheumatoid arthritis: effects of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs and water immersion. Arthritis Rheum 1994; 37: 11327.
  • 17
    Gudbjornsson B, Skogseid B, Oberg K, Wide L, Hallgren R. Intact adrenocorticotropic hormone secretion but impaired cortisol response in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: effect of glucocorticoids. J Rheumatol 1996; 23: 596602.
  • 18
    Templ E, Koeller M, Riedl M, Wagner O, Graninger W, Luger A. Anterior pituitary function in patients with newly diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis. Br J Rheumatol 1996; 35: 3506.
  • 19
    Crofford LJ, Kalogeras KT, Mastorakos G, Magiakou MA, Wells J, Kanik KS, et al. Circadian relationships between interleukin (IL)-6 and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hormones: failure of IL-6 to cause sustained hypercortisolism in patients with early untreated rheumatoid arthritis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997; 82: 127983.
  • 20
    Cutolo M, Foppiani L, Prete C, Ballarino P, Sulli A, Villaggio B, et al. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis function in premenopausal women with rheumatoid arthritis not treated with glucocorticoids. J Rheumatol 1999; 26: 2828.
  • 21
    Gutierrez MA, Garcia ME, Rodriguez JA, Mardonez G, Jacobelli S, Rivero S. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis: a controlled study using insulin hypoglycemia stress test and prolactin stimulation. J Rheumatol 1999; 26: 27781.
  • 22
    Demir H, Kelestimur F, Tunc M, Kirnap M, Ozugul Y. Hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and growth hormone axis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Scand J Rheumatol 1999; 28: 416.
  • 23
    Kanik KS, Chrousos GP, Schumacher HR, Crane ML, Yarboro CH, Wilder RL. Adrenocorticotropin, glucocorticoid, and androgen secretion in patients with new onset synovitis/rheumatoid arthritis: relations with indices of inflammation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000; 85: 14616.
  • 24
    Feher GK, Feher T, Zahumenszky Z. Study on the inactivation mechanism of androgens in rheumatoid arthritis: excretory rate of free and conjugated 17-ketosteroids. Endokrinologie 1979; 73: 16772.
  • 25
    Masi AT, Josipovic DB, Jefferson WE. Low adrenal androgenic-anabolic steroids in women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA): gas-liquid chromatographic studies of RA patients and matched normal control women indicating decreased 11-deoxy-17-ketosteroid excretion. Semin Arthritis Rheum 1984; 14: 123.
  • 26
    Cutolo M, Balleari E, Giusti M, Monachesi M, Accardo S. Sex hormone status of male patients with rheumatoid arthritis: evidence of low serum concentrations of testosterone at baseline and after human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation. Arthritis Rheum 1988; 31: 13147.
  • 27
    Sambrook PN, Eisman JA, Champion GD, Pocock NA. Sex hormone status and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1988; 31: 9738.
  • 28
    Deighton CM, Watson MJ, Walker DJ. Sex hormones in postmenopausal HLA-identical rheumatoid arthritis discordant sibling pairs. J Rheumatol 1992; 19: 16637.
  • 29
    Hedman M, Nilsson E, de la Torre B. Low blood and synovial fluid levels of sulpho-conjugated steroids in rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 1992; 10: 2530.
  • 30
    Valentino R, Savastano S, Tommaselli AP, Riccio A, Mariniello P, Pronesti G, et al. Hormonal pattern in women affected by rheumatoid arthritis. J Endocrinol Invest 1993; 16: 61924.
  • 31
    Mateo L, Nolla JM, Bonnin MR, Navarro MA, Roig-Escofet D. Sex hormone status and bone mineral density in men with rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 1995; 22: 145560.
  • 32
    Mirone L, Altomonte L, D'Agostino P, Zoli A, Barini A, Magaro M. A study of serum androgen and cortisol levels in female patients with rheumatoid arthritis: correlation with disease activity. Clin Rheumatol 1996; 15: 159.
  • 33
    Swain MG, Maric M, Carter L. Defective interleukin-1-induced ACTH release in cholestatic rats: impaired hypothalamic PGE2 release. Am J Physiol 1995; 268: G4049.
  • 34
    Zietz B, Wengler I, Messmann H, Lock G, Schölmerich J, Straub RH. Early shifts of adrenal steroid synthesis before and after relief of short-term cholestasis. J Hepatol 2001; 35: 32937.
  • 35
    Arnett FC, Edworthy SM, Bloch DA, McShane DJ, Fries JF, Cooper NS, et al. The American Rheumatism Association 1987 revised criteria for the classification of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1988; 31: 31524.
  • 36
    Maini RN, Breedveld FC, Kalden JR, Smolen JS, Davis D, Macfarlane JD, et al. Therapeutic efficacy of multiple intravenous infusions of anti–tumor necrosis factor α monoclonal antibody combined with low-dose weekly methotrexate in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1998; 41: 155263.
  • 37
    Charles P, Elliott MJ, Davis D, Potter A, Kalden JR, Antoni C, et al. Regulation of cytokines, cytokine inhibitors, and acute-phase proteins following anti-TNF-alpha therapy in rheumatoid arthritis. J Immunol 1999; 163: 15218.
  • 38
    Straub RH, Konecna L, Hrach S, Rothe G, Kreutz M, Schölmerich J, et al. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulfate are negatively correlated with serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), and DHEA inhibits IL-6 secretion from mononuclear cells in man in vitro: possible link between endocrinosenescence and immunosenescence. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998; 83: 20127.
  • 39
    Santos-Montes A, Gonzalo-Lumbreras R, Izquierdo-Hornillos R. Simultaneous determination of cortisol and cortisone in urine by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography: clinical and doping control applications. J Chromatogr B Biomed Appl 1995; 673: 2733.