• 1
    Ayral X. Injections in the treatment of osteoarthritis. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol 2001; 15: 60926.
  • 2
    Dawes PT, Kirlew C, Haslock I. Saline washout for knee osteoarthritis: results of a controlled study. Clin Rheumatol 1987; 6: 613.
  • 3
    Ravaud P, Moulinier L, Giradeau B, Ayral X, Guerin C, Noel E, et al. Effects of joint lavage and steroid injection in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Arthritis Rheum 1999; 42: 47582.
  • 4
    Chang RW, Falconer J, Stulberg SD, Arnold WJ, Manheim LM, Dyer AR. A randomized, controlled trial of arthroscopic surgery versus closed-needle joint lavage for patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Arthritis Rheum 1993; 36: 28996.
  • 5
    Ayral X, Dougados M. Joint lavage. Rev Rheum 1995; 62: 2817.
  • 6
    Livesley PJ, Doherty M, Needoff M, Moulton A. Arthroscopic lavage of osteoarthritic knees. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1991; 73: 9226.
  • 7
    Ike RW, Arnold WJ, Rothschild E, Shaw HI, The Tidal Irrigation Cooperating Group. Tidal irrigation versus conservative medical management in patients with osteoarthritis of the knee: a prospective randomized study. J Rheumatol 1992; 19: 7729.
  • 8
    Paul H, Clayburne G, Schumacher HR. Lidocaine inhibits leukocyte migration and phagocytosis in monosodium urate crystal-induced synovitis in dogs. J Rheumatol 1983; 10: 4349.
  • 9
    Creamer P, Hunt M, Dieppe P. Pain mechanisms in OA of the knee: effect of intraarticular anesthetic. J Rheumatol 1996; 23: 10316.
  • 10
    McCarthy GM, McCarty DJ. Intrasynovial corticosteroid therapy. Bull Rheum Dis 1994; 43: 27.
  • 11
    McCarty DJ, Harman JG, Grassanovich JL, Qian C. Treatment of rheumatoid joint inflammation with intrasynovial triamcinolone hexacetonide. J Rheumatol 1995; 22: 16315.
  • 12
    Neustadt DH. Intra-articular therapy for rheumatoid synovitis of the knee: effects of the postinjection rest regimen. Clin Rheumatol Pract 1985; 3: 658.
  • 13
    Chakravarty K, Pharoah PDP, Scott DOI. A randomized controlled study of post injection rest following intraarticular steroid therapy for knee synovitis. Br J Rheumatol 1994; 33: 4648.
  • 14
    Hollander JL, Jesser RA, Brown EM. Intra-synovial corticosteroid therapy: a decade of use. Bull Rheum Dis 1961; 11: 23940.
  • 15
    Dixon AS, Dixon J, Bywaters EGL. The effect of intraarticular injections of cortisone acetate and hydrocortisone acetate in rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Sci 1953; 12: 1531.
  • 16
    Keagy RD, Keim HA. Intra-articular steroid therapy: repeated use in patients with chronic arthritis. Am J Med Sci 1967; 253: 7580.
  • 17
    Roberts WN, Babcock EA, Breitbach SA, Owen DS, Irby WB. Corticosteroid injection in rheumatoid arthritis does not increase rate of total joint arthroplasty. J Rheumatol 1996; 23: 10014.
  • 18
    Fitzgerald RH. Intrasynovial injection of steroids: uses and abuses. Mayo Clin Proc 1976; 51: 6559.
  • 19
    Hollander JL. Intraarticular hydracortisone therapy in arthritis and allied conditions. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1953; 35: 98390.
  • 20
    Gottlieb NL, Riskin WG. Complications of local corticosteroid injections. JAMA 1980; 243: 15478.
  • 21
    Friedman DM, Moore ME. The efficacy of intraarticular steroids in osteoarthritis: a double-blind study. J Rheumatol 1980; 7: 8506.
  • 22
    Chakravarty K, Pharoah PGP, Lim K, Scott DGI. Intra-articular steroid for knee synovitis: to rest or not to rest [abstract]. Br J Rheumatol 1992; 31: 153.
  • 23
    Wright V, Chandler GN, Morison RAH, Hartfall SJ. Intra-articular therapy in osteo-arthritis: comparison of hydrocortisone acetate and hydrocortisone tertiary-butylacetate. Ann Rheum Dis 1960; 19: 257.
  • 24
    Hollander SL. Intrasynovial corticosteroid therapy in arthritis. MD Med J 1970; 19: 626.
  • 25
    Gray RG, Gottlieb NL. Intraarticular corticosteroids: an update assessment. Clin Orthop 1983; 177: 23563.
  • 26
    Roberts N, Hayes CW, Breitbach SA, Owen DS. Dry taps and what to do about them: a pictoral essay on failed arthrocenteses of the knee. Am J Med 1996; 100: 4614.
  • 27
    Miller JH, White J, Norton TH. The value of intraarticular injections in osteoarthritis of the knee. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1958; 40: 63643.
  • 28
    Bain LS, Balch HW, Wetherly JM, Yeadon A. Intraarticular triamcinolone hexacetonide: double-blind comparison with methylprednisolone. Br J Clin Pract 1972; 26: 55961.
  • 29
    Gaffney K, Ledingham J, Perry JD. Intraarticular triamcinolone hexacetonide in knee osteoarthritis: factors influencing the clinical response. Ann Rheum Dis 1995; 54: 37981.
  • 30
    Adams ME, Atkinson MH, Lussier AJ, Schulz JI, Siminovitch KA, Wade JR, et al. The role of viscosupplementation with hylan G-F 20 (Synvisc) in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: a Canadian multicenter trial comparing hylan G-F 20 alone, hylan G-F 20 with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and NSAIDs alone. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1995; 3: 21326.
  • 31
    George E. Intraarticular hyaluronan treatment for osteoarthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 1998; 57: 63740.
  • 32
    Rydell N, Balazs EA. Effect of intraarticular injection of hyaluronic acid on the clinical symptoms of osteoarthritis and on granulation tissue formation. Clin Orthop 1971; 80: 2532.
  • 33
    Brandt KD, Smith GN, Simon LS. Intraarticular injection of hyaluronan as treatment for knee osteoarthritis: what is the evidence? Arthritis Rheum 2000; 43: 1192203.
  • 34
    Altman RD, Moskowitz R, The Hyalgan Study Group. Intraarticular sodium hyaluronate (Hyalgan) in the treatment of patients with osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized clinical trial. J Rheumatol 1998; 25: 220512.
  • 35
    Goto M, Hanyu T, Yoshio T, Natsuno H, Shimizu M, Murata N, et al. Intra-articular injection of hyaluronate (SI-6601D) improves joint pain and synovial fluid prostoglandin E2 levels in rheumatoid arthritis: a multicenter trial. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2001; 19: 37783.
  • 36
    Lussier A, Civido AA, McFarlane CA, Olszynski WP, Potasher WJ, De Medicis R. Viscosupplementation with hylan for the treatment of osteoarthritis: findings from clinical practice in Canada. J Rheumatol 1996; 23: 157985.
  • 37
    Felson DT. Hyaluronate sodium injections for osteoarthritis: hope, hype, and hard truths. Arch Intern Med 2002; 162: 2457.
  • 38
    Listrat V, Ayral X, Patarnello F, Bonvarlet JP, Simonnet J, Amor B, et al. Arthroscopic evaluation of potential structure modifying activity of hyaluronan (Hyalgan) in osteoarthritis of the knee. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1997; 5: 15360.
  • 39
    Jahingier ZN, Moolenburgh JD, Jacobs JWG, Serdijn H, Bijlsma JWJ. The effect of radiation synovectomy in patients with persistent arthritis: a perspective study. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2001; 19: 41724.
  • 40
    Sledge CB, Zuckerman JD, Zalutsky MR, Atcher RW, Shortoff S, Lionberger DR, et al. Treatment of rheumatoid synovitis of the knee with intraarticular injection of dysprosium 165-ferric hydroxide macroaggregates. Arthritis Rheum 1986; 29: 1539.
  • 41
    Heuft-Dorenbosch LLJ, de Vet HCW, van der Linden S. Yttrium radiosynoviorthesis in the treatment of knee arthritis in rheumatoid arthritis: a systematic review. Ann Rheum Dis 2000; 59: 5836.
  • 42
    Delcambre B. Osmic acid synovectomy: a reappraisal and a plea. Joint Bone Spine 2001; 68: 27981.
  • 43
    Rylance HJ, Chalmers TM, Elton RA. Clinical trials of intra-articular aspirin in rheumatoid arthritis. Lancet 1980; 2: 1099102.
  • 44
    Abeles M, Garjian P. Do spray coolant anesthetics contaminate an aseptic field? [letter] Arthritis Rheum 1986; 29: 76.
  • 45
    Juanola X, Nolla JM, Rozadilla A, Mateo L. Arthritis séptica pospuncion articular: presentación de 5 enfermos y revision de la literature. Rev España 1991; 18: 2235.
  • 46
    Ostensson A, Geborek P. Septic arthritis as a non-surgical complication in rheumatoid arthritis: relation to disease severity and therapy. Br J Rheumatol 1991; 30: 358.
  • 47
    Owen DS, Irby R. Intraarticular and soft-tissue aspiration and injection. Clin Rheumatol Pract 1986; XX: 5263.
  • 48
    Gatter RA, Schumacher HR. A practical handbook of joint fluid analysis. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger; 1991. p. 1423.
  • 49
    Steinbrocker O, Neustadt DH. Aspiration and injection therapy in arthritis and musculoskeletal disorders. Hagerstown (MD): Harper & Row; 1972.
  • 50
    Schumacher HR. Arthrocentesis of the knee. Hosp Med 1997: 603.
  • 51
    Doña-Naranjo MA, Schumacher HR. Arthrocentesis of the wrist. Hosp Med 1997: 478.
  • 52
    Nakashima AK, McCarthy MA, Martone WJ, Anderson RL. Epidemic septic arthritis caused by Serratia marcescens and associated with a benzalkonium chloride antiseptic. J Clin Microbiol 1987; 25: 10148.
  • 53
    Pal B, Morris J. Perceived risks of joint infection following intra-articular corticosteroid injections: a survey of rheumatologists. Clin Rheumatol 1999; 18: 2645.
  • 54
    McCarty DJ, Hogan JM. Inflammatory reaction after intrasynovial injection of microcrystalline adrenocorticosteroid esters. Arthritis Rheum 1964; 7: 35967.
  • 55
    Eymontt MJ, Gordon GV, Schumacher HR, Hansell JR. The effects on synovial permeability and synovial fluid leukocyte counts in symptomatic osteoarthritis after intraarticular corticosteroid administration. J Rheumatol 1982; 9: 198203.
  • 56
    Hollingsworth PN, Scott JT. Distribution of intra-articular injections into the knee [abstract]. Ann Rheum Dis.
  • 57
    Smyth CJ, Leidholt JD. Steroid arthropathy of the hip. Clin Orthop Rel Res 1973; 90: 506.
  • 58
    McCarty DJ, McCarthy G, Carrera G. Intraarticular corticosteroids possibly leading to local osteonecrosis and marrow fat induced synovitis. J Rheumatol 1991; 18: 10914.
  • 59
    Laroche M, Arlet J, Mazieres B. Osteonecrosis of the femoral and humeral heads after intraarticular corticosteroid injections. J Rheumatol 1990; 17: 54951.
  • 60
    Salter RB, Gross A, Hall JH. Hydrocortisone arthropathy—an experimental investigation. Can Med Assoc J 1967; 97: 3747.
  • 61
    Gibson T, Burry HC, Poswillo D, Glass J. Effect of intraarticular corticosteroid injections on primate cartilage. Ann Rheum Dis 1976; 36: 749.
  • 62
    Todhunter RJ, Fubini SL, Vernier-Singer M, Wootton JAM, Lust G, Freeman KP, et al. Acute synovitis and intra-articular methylprednisolone acetate in ponies. Osteoarthritis Cartilage 1998; 6: 94105.
  • 63
    Cassidy JT, Bole GG. Cutaneous atrophy secondary to intraarticular corticosteroid administration. Ann Intern Med 1966; 65: 100818.
  • 64
    Konttinen YT, Friman C, Tolvanen E, Reitamo S, Johansson E. Local skin rash after intraarticular methylprednisolone acetate injection in a patient with RA. Arthritis Rheum 1983; 26: 2313.
  • 65
    Kleinman M, Gross AE. Achilles tendon rupture following steroid injection: report of three cases. J Bone Joint Surg 1983; 65: 13457.
  • 66
    Ohira T, Ishikawa K. Hydroxyapatite deposition in articular cartilage by intra-articular injections of methylprednisolone. J Bone Joint Surg 1986; 68: 50920.
  • 67
    Dalinka MK, Stewart V, Bomalaski JS, Halpern M, Kricun ME. Periarticular calcifications in association with intra-articular corticosteroid injections. Radiology 1984; 153: 6158.
  • 68
    Debiais F, Bontoux D, Alcalay M, Vandermarcq P, Azais O, Denis A, et al. Etude des calcifications apparues après injection intradiscale d'hexacetonide de triamcinolone dans les hernies discales lombaires. Rev Rhum 1991; 58: 56570.
  • 69
    Menei P, Fournier D, Alhayek G, Mercier Ph, Francois H, Audran M, et al. Granulome necrotico-inflammatoire calcifie après nucleorthese a l'hexacetonide de triamcinolone. Rev Rhum 1991; 58: 6059.
  • 70
    Puttick MPE, Wade LP, Chalmers A, Connell DG, Rango KK. Acute local reactions after intraarticular injection of hylan for osteoarthritis of the knee. J Rheumatol 1995; 22: 13114.
  • 71
    Pullman-Mooar S, Mooar P, Sieck M, Clayburne G, Schumacher HR. Are there distinctive inflammatory flares of synovitis after hylan GF intraarticular injections? J Rheumatol 2002; 29: 26114.
  • 72
    Ali Y, Weinstein M, Jokl P. Acute pseudogout following intraarticular injection of high molecular weight hyaluronic acid. Am J Med 1999; 107: 6412.
  • 73
    Wemple MA, Starkebaum G. Simultaneous pseudogout and gout after intra-articular injection of hylan gel fluid 20. J Clin Rheumatol 2000; 6: 589.
  • 74
    Disla E, Infante R, Fahmy A, Karten I, Cuppari GG. Recurrent acute calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate arthritis following intraarticular hyaluronate injection. Arthritis Rheum 1999; 42: 13023.
  • 75
    Luzar MJ. Pseudogout following the intraarticular injection of sodium hyaluronate. Arthritis Rheum 1998; 5: 3940.
  • 76
    Maillefert JF, Hirschhorn P, Oascaud F, Oiroth C, Tavernier C. Acute attack of chondrocalcinosis after an intraarticular injection of hyaluronan. Rev Rhum [Engl Ed] 1997; 10: 5934.
  • 77
    Yacyshyn EA, Matteson EL. Gout after intraarticular injection of hylan GF-20 (Synvisc). J Rheumatol 2000; 27: 15712.
  • 78
    Daumen-Legre V, Pham T, Acquaviva PV, Lafforgue P. Evaluation of safety and efficacy of viscosupplementation in knee osteoarthritis with chondrocalcinosis [abstract]. Arthritis Rheum 1999; 42 Suppl 9: S158.
  • 79
    Schumacher HR, Gibilisco P, Reginato A, Cherian V, Gordon G. Implications of crystal deposition in osteoarthritis. J Rheumatol 1983; 9: 401.
  • 80
    Wobig M, Beks P, Dickhut A, Maier R, Vetter G. Open label multicenter trial of the safety and efficacy of viscosupplementation with hylan G-F (Synvisc) in primary osteoarthritis of the knee. J Clin Rheumatol 1999; Suppl 5: S2431.
  • 81
    Chazerain P, Rolland D, Cordonnier C, Ziza JM. Septic hip arthritis after multiple injections into the joint of hyaluronate and glucocorticoid. Rev Rhum 1999; 66: 4367.
  • 82
    Balogh K. The histologic appearance of corticosteroid injection sites. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1986; 110: 116872.
  • 83
    Jones A, Regan M, Ledingham J, Pattrick M, Manhire A, Doherty M. Importance of placement of intraarticular steroid injections. BMJ 1993; 307: 132930.
  • 84
    Eustace JA, Brophy DP, Gibney RP, Bresnihan B, FitzGerald O. Comparison of the accuracy of steroid placement with clinical outcome in patients with shoulder symptoms. Ann Rheum Dis 1997; 56: 5963.
  • 85
    Bliddal H. Placement of intra-articular injections verified by mini air-arthrography. Ann Rheum Dis 1999; 58: 6413.
  • 86
    Weiss J, Ting M. Arthrography-assisted intraarticular injection of steroids in treatment of adhesive capsulitis. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1978; 59: 2857.
  • 87
    Roy S, Dewitz A, Paul I. Ultrasound-assisted ankle arthrocentesis. Am J Emerg Med 1999; 17: 3001.
  • 88
    Koski JM. Ultrasound guided injections in rheumatology. J Rheumatol 2000; 27: 21318.
  • 89
    Grassi E, Farina A, Fillippucci E, Cervini C. Sonographically guided procedures in rheumatology. Semin Arthritis Rheum 2001; 30: 34753.
  • 90
    Wakefield RJ, Gibbon WW, Emery P. The current status of ultrasonography in rheumatology. Rheumatology 1999; 38: 1958.
  • 91
    Fessell DP, Jacobson JA, Craig J, Habra G, Prasad A, Radliff A, et al. Using sonography to reveal and aspirate joint effusions. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2000; 174: 135362.
  • 92
    Hertzberger-Ten Cate R, Jung I, Bos CFA. Septa within the suprapatellar region blocking intraarticular steroids in pauciarticular juvenile chronic arthritis. Clin Exp Rheum 1992; 10: 934.
  • 93
    Ovistgaard E, Kristoffersen H, Terslev L, Danneskiold-Samsøe B, Torp-Pedersen S, Bliddal H. Ultrasonographic evidence of intra-articular injections in the hip [abstract]. J Rheumatol 2001; 28 Suppl 63: 32.