Exercise-related goals and self-efficacy as correlates of aquatic exercise in individuals with arthritis




To examine whether aquatic exercise–related goals, task self-efficacy, and scheduling self-efficacy are predictive of aquatic exercise attendance in individuals with arthritis. A secondary objective was to determine whether high attendees differed from low attendees on goals and self-efficacy.


The sample comprised 216 adults with arthritis (mean age 69.21 years). Measures included exercise-related goal difficulty and specificity, task and scheduling self-efficacy, and 8-week aquatic exercise attendance.


Results of a multiple hierarchical regression analysis were significant (P < 0.01). Goal difficulty, specificity, and task self-efficacy were independent predictors of attendance (P < 0.05). A significant multivariate analysis of variance (P < 0.01) indicated that high attendees had higher task and scheduling self-efficacy and lower goal difficulty than did low attendees (P < 0.05).


Support for the importance of exercise-related goal setting and self-efficacy was demonstrated. Implications pertain to the design of interventions to impact aquatic exercise.