• 1
    Arnett FC. HLA and autoimmunity in scleroderma (systemic sclerosis). Int Rev Immunol 1995; 12: 10728.
  • 2
    Johnson RW, Tew MB, Arnett FC. The genetics of systemic sclerosis. Curr Rheumatol Rep 2002; 4: 99107.
  • 3
    Wanstrat A, Wakeland E. The genetics of complex autoimmune diseases: non-MHC susceptibility genes. Nat Immunol 2001; 2: 8029.
  • 4
    Mayes MD. Scleroderma epidemiology. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 1996; 22: 75164.
  • 5
    Arnett FC, Cho M, Chatterjee S, Aguilar MB, Reveille JD, Mayes MD. Familial occurrence frequencies and relative risks for systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) in three United States cohorts. Arthritis Rheum 2001; 44: 135962.
  • 6
    Risch NJ. Searching for genetic determinants in the new millennium. Nature 2000; 405: 84756.
  • 7
    Risch N, Merikangas K. The future of genetic studies of complex human diseases. Science 1996; 273: 15167.
  • 8
    Arnett FC, Howard RF, Tan FK, Moulds JM, Bias WB, Weathers PE, et al. Increased prevalence of systemic sclerosis in a Native American tribe in Oklahoma. Arthritis Rheum 1996; 39: 136270.
  • 9
    Tan FK, Stivers DN, Foster MW, Chakraborty R, Howard RF, Milewicz DM, et al. Association of microsatellite markers near the fibrillin 1 gene on human chromosome 15q with scleroderma in a Native American population. Arthritis Rheum 1998; 41: 172937.
  • 10
    Tan FK, Wang N, Kuwana M, Chakraborty R, Bona CA, Milewicz DM, et al. Association of fibrillin 1 single-nucleotide polymorphism haplotypes with systemic sclerosis in Choctaw and Japanese populations. Arthritis Rheum 2001; 44: 893901.
  • 11
    Kodera T, Tan FK, Sasaki T, Arnett FC, Bona CA. Association of 5′-untranslated region of the fibrillin-1 gene with Japanese scleroderma. Gene 2002; 297: 617.
  • 12
    Zhou XD, Tan FK, Reveille JD, Wallis D, Milewicz DM, Ahn C, et al. Association of novel polymorphism with the expression of SPARC in normal fibroblasts and with susceptibility to scleroderma. Arthritis Rheum 2002; 46: 29909.
  • 13
    Pham HT, Tan FK, Stivers DN, Chakraborty R, Arnett FC. Microsatellite polymorphisms near the topoisomerase I gene on chromosome 20 in Choctaw Native Americans with scleroderma [abstract]. Arthritis Rheum 1998; 41 Suppl 9: S242.
  • 14
    Zhou XD, Tan FK, Stivers DN, Arnett FC. Microsatellites and intragenic polymorphisms of transforming growth factor β and platelet-derived growth factor and their receptor genes in Native Americans with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma). Arthritis Rheum 2000; 43: 106873.
  • 15
    Subcommittee for Scleroderma Criteria of the American Rheumatism Association Diagnostic and Therapeutic Criteria Committee. Preliminary criteria for the classification of systemic sclerosis (scleroderma). Arthritis Rheum 1980; 23: 58190.
  • 16
    Li CC. Introduction to population genetics. Pacific Grove (CA): Boxwood Press; 1976.
  • 17
    Sham PC, Curtis D. An extended transmission/disequilibrium test (TDT) for multi-allele marker loci. Ann Hum Genet 1995; 59: 97105.
  • 18
    Long JC, Williams RC, Urbanek M. An E-M algorithm and testing strategy for multiple-locus haplotypes. Am J Hum Genet 1995; 56: 799810.
  • 19
    Houwen RH, Baharloo JS, Blankenship K, Raeymaekers P, Juyn J, Sandkuijl LA, et al. Genome screening by searching for shared segments: mapping a gene for benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis. Nat Genet 1994; 8: 3806.
  • 20
    Tan FK, Stivers DN, Arnett FC, Chakraborty R, Howard R, Reveille JD. HLA haplotypes and microsatellite polymorphisms in and around the major histocompatibility complex region in a Native American population with a high prevalence of scleroderma (systemic sclerosis). Tissue Antigens 1999; 53: 7480.
  • 21
    Gaffney PM, Ortmann WA, Selby SA, Shark KB, Ockenden TC, Rohlf KE, et al. Genome screening in human systemic lupus erythematosus: results from a second Minnesota cohort and combined analyses of 187 sib-pair families. Am J Hum Genet 2000; 66: 54756.
  • 22
    Tsao BP. Lupus susceptibility genes on human chromosome 1. Int Rev Immunol 2000; 19: 31934.
  • 23
    Gaffney PM, Kearns GM, Shark KB, Ortmann WA, Selby SA, Malmgren ML, et al. A genome-wide search for susceptibility genes in human systemic lupus erythematosus sib-pair families. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1998; 95: 148759.
  • 24
    Brown MA, Pile KD, Kennedy LG, Campbell D, Andrew L, March R, et al. A genome-wide screen for susceptibility loci in ankylosing spondylitis. Arthritis Rheum 1998; 41: 58895.
  • 25
    MacKay K, Eyre S, Myerscough A, Milicic A, Barton A, Laval S, et al. Whole-genome linkage analysis of rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility loci in 252 affected sibling pairs in the United Kingdom. Arthritis Rheum 2002; 46: 6329.
  • 26
    Becker KG, Simon RM, Bailey-Wilson JE, Freidlin B, Biddison WE, McFarland HF, et al. Clustering of non-major histocompatibility complex susceptibility candidate loci in human autoimmune diseases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1998; 95: 997984.
  • 27
    Service SK, Lang DW, Freimer NB, Sandkuijl LA. Linkage disequilibrium mapping of disease genes by reconstruction of ancestral haplotypes in founder population. Am J Hum Genet 1999; 64: 172838.
  • 28
    Xiong M, Jin L. Comparison of the power and accuracy of biallelic and microsatellite markers in population-based gene-mapping methods. Am J Hum Genet 1999; 64: 62940.
  • 29
    Weir BS. Genetic data analysis II. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates; 1996.
  • 30
    Rhodes DA, Trowsdale J. Genetics and molecular genetics of the MHC. Rev Immunogenet 1999; 1: 2131.
  • 31
    Briggs D, Stephens C, Vaughan R, Welsh K, Black C. A molecular and serologic analysis of the major histocompatibility complex and complement component C4 in systemic sclerosis. Arthritis Rheum 1993; 36: 94354.
  • 32
    Reveille JD, Fischbach M, McNearney T, Friedman AW, Aguilar MB, Lisse J, et al. Systemic sclerosis in 3 US ethnic groups: a comparison of clinical, sociodemographic, serologic, and immunogenetic determinants. Semin Arthritis Rheum 2001; 30: 33246.
  • 33
    Arnett FC, Reveille JD, Goldstein R, Pollard KM, Leaird K, Smith EA, et al. Autoantibodies to fibrillarin in systemic sclerosis (scleroderma): an immunogenetic, serologic, and clinical analysis. Arthritis Rheum 1996; 39: 115160.
  • 34
    Reveille JD, Durban E, MacLeod-St. Clair MJ, Goldstein R, Moreda R, Altman RD, et al. Association of amino acid sequences in the HLA-DQB1 first domain with antitopoisomerase I autoantibody response in scleroderma (progressive systemic sclerosis). J Clin Invest 1992; 90: 97380.