• 1
    Khan MA. Ankylosing spondylitis: clinical aspects. In: Taurog JD, Calin A, editors. The spondyloarthritides. Oxford (UK): Oxford University Press; 1998. p. 2740.
  • 2
    Braun J, Bollow M, Neure L, Seipelt E, Seyrekbasan F, Herbst H, et al. Use of immunohistologic and in situ hybridization techniques in the examination of sacroiliac joint biopsy specimens from patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Arthritis Rheum 1995; 38: 499505.
  • 3
    Bollow M, Fischer T, Reisshauer H, Backhaus M, Sieper J, Hamm B, et al. Quantitative analyses of sacroiliac biopsies in spondyloarthropathies: T cells and macrophages predominate in early and active sacroiliitis—cellularity correlates with the degree of enhancement detected by magnetic resonance imaging. Ann Rheum Dis 2000; 59: 13540.
  • 4
    Benjamin R, Parham P. Guilt by association: HLA-B27 and ankylosing spondylitis. Immunol Today 1990; 11: 13742.
  • 5
    Glant TT, Mikecz K, Arzoumanian A, Poole AR. Proteoglycan-induced arthritis in BALB/c mice: clinical features and histopathology. Arthritis Rheum 1987; 30: 20112.
  • 6
    Mikecz K, Glant TT, Poole AR. Immunity to cartilage proteoglycans in BALB/c mice with progressive polyarthritis and ankylosing spondylitis induced by injection of human cartilage proteoglycan. Arthritis Rheum 1987; 30: 30618.
  • 7
    Leroux JY, Guerassimov A, Cartman A, Delaunay N, Webber C, Rosenberg LC, et al. Immunity to the G1 globular domain of the cartilage proteoglycan aggrecan can induce inflammatory erosive polyarthritis and spondylitis in BALB/c mice but immunity to G1 is inhibited by covalently bound keratan sulfate in vitro and in vivo. J Clin Invest 1996; 97: 62132.
  • 8
    Golds EE, Stephen IB, Esdaile JM, Strawczynski H, Poole AR. Lymphocyte transformation to connective tissue antigens in adult and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and a nonarthritic control population. Cell Immunol 1983; 82: 196209.
  • 9
    Mikecz K, Glant TT, Baron M, Poole AR. Isolation of proteoglycan-specific T lymphocytes from patients with ankylosing spondylitis. Cell Immunol 1988; 112: 5563.
  • 10
    Guerassimov A, Zhang Y, Banerjee S, Cartman A, Leroux J-Y, Rosenberg LC, et al. Cellular immunity to the G1 domain of cartilage proteoglycan aggrecan is enhanced in patients with rheumatoid arthritis but only after removal of keratan sulfate. Arthritis Rheum 1998; 41: 101925.
  • 11
    Fiorillo MT, Maragno M, Butler R, Dupuis ML, Sorrentino R. CD8(+) T-cell autoreactivity to an HLA-B27-restricted self-epitope correlates with ankylosing spondylitis. J Clin Invest 2000; 106: 4753.
  • 12
    Ho AM, Johnson MD, Kingsley DM. Role of the mouse ank gene in control of tissue calcification and arthritis. Science 2000; 289: 26570.
  • 13
    Taurog JD, Maika SD, Satumtira N, Dorris ML, McLean IL, Yanagisawa H, et al. Inflammatory disease in HLA-B27 transgenic rats. Immunol Rev 1999; 169: 20923.
  • 14
    Dubost JJ, Sauvezie B. Late onset peripheral spondyloarthropathy. J Rheumatol 1989; 16: 12147.
  • 15
    Zhang Y, Guerassimov A, Leroux JY, Cartman A, Webber C, Lalic R, et al. Induction of arthritis in BALB/c mice by cartilage link protein: involvement of distinct regions recognized by T and B lymphocytes. Am J Pathol 1998; 153: 128391.
  • 16
    Poole AR. The histopathology of ankylosing spondylitis: are there unifying hypotheses? Am J Med Sci 1998; 316: 22833.
  • 17
    Bradford MM. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem 1976; 72: 24854.
  • 18
    Melrose J, Little CB, Ghosh P. Detection of aggregatable proteoglycan populations by affinity blotting using biotinylated hyaluronan. Anal Biochem 1998; 256: 14957.
  • 19
    Perides G, Asher RA, Lark MW, Lane WS, Robinson RA, Bignami A. Glial hyaluronate-binding protein: a product of metalloproteinase digestion of versican? Biochem J 1995; 312: 37784.
  • 20
    Hollander AH, Pidoux I, Reiner A, Rorabeck C, Bourne R, Poole AR. Damage to type II collagen in ageing and osteoarthritis: starts at the articular surface, originates around chondrocytes and extends into the cartilage with progressive degeneration. J Clin Invest 1995; 96: 285969.
  • 21
    Zhang Y, Guerassimov A, Leroux JY, Cartman A, Webber C, Lalic R, et al. Arthritis induced by proteoglycan aggrecan G1 domain in BALB/c mice: evidence for T cell involvement and the immunosuppressive influence of keratan sulfate on recognition of T and B cell epitopes. J Clin Invest 1998; 101: 167886.
  • 22
    Grover J, Roughley PJ. The expression of functional link protein in a baculovirus system: analysis of mutants lacking the A, B and B′ domains. Biochem J 1994; 300: 31724.
  • 23
    Doege KJ, Sasaki M, Kimura T, Yamada Y. Complete coding sequence and deduced primary structure of the human cartilage large aggregating proteoglycan, aggrecan: human-specific repeats, and additional alternatively spliced forms. J Biol Chem 1991; 266: 894902.
  • 24
    Zimmermann DR, Ruoslahti E. Multiple domains of the large fibroblast proteoglycan, versican. EMBO J 1989; 8: 297581.
  • 25
    Walcz EF, Deak P, Erhardt SN, Coulter C, Fulop C, Horvath P, et al. Complete coding sequence, deduced primary structure, chromosomal localization, and structural analysis of murine aggrecan. Genomics 1994; 22: 36471.
  • 26
    Ito K, Shinomura T, Zako M, Ujita U, Kimata K. Multiple forms of mouse PG-M, a large chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan generated by alternative splicing. J Biol Chem 1995; 270: 95865.
  • 27
    Shinomura T, Zako M, Ito K, Ujita M, Kimata K. The gene structure and organization of mouse PG-M, a large chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan: genomic background for the generation of multiple PG-M transcripts. J Biol Chem 1995; 270: 1032833.
  • 28
    Melrose JP, Ghosh P, Taylor TKF. A comparative analysis of the differential spatial and temporal distributions of the large (aggrecan, versican) and small (decorin, biglycan, fibromodulin) proteoglycans of the intervertebral disc. J Anat 2001; 198: 315.
  • 29
    Bode-Lesniewska B, Dours-Zimmermann MT. Distribution of the large aggregating proteoglycan versican in adult human tissues. J Histochem Cytochem 1996; 44: 30312.
  • 30
    Waggett AD, Ralphs JR, Kwan AP, Woodnutt D, Benjamin M. Characterization of collagens and proteoglycans at the insertion of the human Achilles tendon. Matrix Biol 1998; 16: 45770.
  • 31
    Bywaters EGL. Pathology of the spondylarthropathies. In: Calin A, editor. Spondyloarthropathies. Orlando: Grune & Stratton; 1984. p. 4368.
  • 32
    Witter J, Roughley PJ, Webber C, Roberts N, Keystone E, Poole AR. The immunologic detection and characterization of cartilage proteoglycan degradation products in synovial fluids of patients with arthritis. Arthritis Rheum 1987; 30: 51929.
  • 33
    Banerjee S, Webber C, Poole AR. The induction of arthritis in mice by the cartilage proteoglycan aggrecan: roles of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Cell Immunol 1992; 144: 34757.